Interactive Genetics

Interactive Genetics

Gender Determinatio n Sex Determination In humans what genetically makes you male or female???? Images from: http://www.careerwomaninc.com/blog/?p=1675

Gender is determined by our chromosomes females XX males XY female mal e What can you notice about the difference between

the X and Y chromosomes? What do you notice about the difference between the X and Y chromosomes? Y chromosome is much smaller. SRY

The Y chromosome carries the SRY gene. This gene is called the sex-determining gene because it causes male sex organs to develop. Images from: http://creationrevolution.com/2011/01/y-chromosome-adam-and-the-cambrian-explosion/ The possible genotypes for gender are XX or XY.

That amounts to 3 Xs and 1 Y. Why then arent there more females than males in the world? Complete the Punnett square X Y X

X XX XX Each mating there is a XY

50% chance female and XY Results: 50% chance male

5/7/2014 Do Now: Take out homework. 1. What types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis? 2. How many nitrogenous bases are in one codon? 3. How many codons are needed to specify 2 amino acids? Homework:

Study for DNA core assessment (repication, transcription, and translation) and genetics/cell divison test Match the RNA with its description: ______ mRNA a. brings the amino acid to the

______ tRNA complementary codon ______ rRNA b. allows the DNA sequence to leave the nucleus c. is bound to the ribosome and assists in making proteins

5/8/2014 Do Now: Take out homework. Then What is the difference between a codon and an anticodon? Write in the anticodons for this strand of mRNA.

Homework: Study for DNA core assessment (repication, transcription, and translation) and genetics/cell divison test Fill in the following chart: DNA mRNA

(codon) TAC GAT CCA GTT tRNA (anticodon) Amino acid

(abbrev) Human Genetic Disorder s Images from: http://www.dnarss.com/Chromosome_9.html Genetic Traits and Disorders

Genes that control human traits can be altered (mutated) and then be inherited by offspring Images from: http://www.aldanaanatomy.com/category/skin/page/2/, http://www.eyesurgeonspc.com/lasik-rock-island/cataract_surgery_rock_island/cataract-surgery-rock-island.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydactyly Mutation Definition= a change in DNA sequence that affects genetic info

NOTE = The result of some mutations are genetic disorders, not all! Image from: http://alsn.mda.org/news/c9orf72-mutation-most-common-cause-als-ftd-als-ftd How are disorders passed or inherited? Four main ways 1. Single gene 2. Multifactorial 3. Chromosomal

abnormality 4. X-linked 1. Single Gene Disorders The problem trait is controlled by a single gene and can be passed in a dominant/recessive manner. Examples . . .

Single Gene Disorders (examples) Dominant 1. Achondroplasia 2. Cataracts 3. Polydactyly Images from: http://www.tvchannelsfree.com/tvshows/232/Little-People--Big-World/3.html, http://www.avclinic.com/Cataract.htm http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/polydactyly-extra-fingers-toes.html

Single Gene Disorders (examples) Recessive 1. Albinism 2. Sickle Cell Anemia Images from: http://vitiligorelief.com/albinism-in-humans.html, http://www.albinism.org/, http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=771080393, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sca/

2. Multifactorial Disorders many factors These disorders result from mutations in multiple genes Environmental factors can also affect the severity/onset of these

disorders Difficult to study and treat Multifactorial Disorders (examples) Examples . . . 1. Hypothyroidism 2. Alzheimers disease 3. Some cancers (colon, breast,etc)

3. Chromosomal Abnormality In these disorders entire chromosomes or large segments of chromosomes are missing, duplicated, or otherwise altered. Image from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/chromosomaldeletion

Ways chromosomal abnormality can occur: Nondisjunction Failure of a chromosome to separate from its homologue during meiosis One gamete receives an extra copy of a chromosome and the other gamete lacks the

chromosome entirely Nondisjunction Chromosomal Abnormality (cont.) Scientists can use karyotypes to identify disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities.

Example of a normal human male karyotype: Nondisjunction Ex. Down Syndrome is caused by three copies of chromosome # 21 Image from: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/down/

Ways chromosomal abnormality can occur: deletion Image from: http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-genetics-primer.htm Ways chromosomal abnormality can occur:

duplicatio n Image from: http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-genetics-primer.htm Ways chromosomal abnormality can occur: insertion

Image from: http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-genetics-primer.htm Ways chromosomal abnormality can occur: translocation Image from: http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-genetics-primer.htm

4. X-Linked Disorders Disorders in which the mutation or errors are in genes found on the X chromosome Examples . . . 1. Hemophilia 2. Muscular Dystrophy 3. Red/green colorblindness

Images from: http://www.colour-blindness.com/colour-blindness-tests/ishihara-colour-test-plates/ Pedigree: Studying genetic disorders in humans It is unethical to use humans as test subjects (plus it would take too long to get the results), thus one of the best ways to study human

patterns of inheritance is to use . . . Pedigrees! Image from: http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-atsma/misc/gen2004.htm Pedigree: A family tree that traces the inheritance of a

specific trait. Pedigree Symbols Members affected with Lung disease Members affected with Heart Disease

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