INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION Chapter 14 WHY ARE RELATIONSHIPS IMPORTANT? Much of the day-to-day meaning in life comes from
them. People feel lonely and alienated without them FACTORS IN INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION Proximity/propinquity Mere exposure
Similarity Attitudes and values
Physical appearance Interests demographics FACTORS IN INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION Physical Appearance/attractiveness
Reciprocal Liking Familiarity Related to propinquity, similarity, and reciprocal liking WHAT IS BEAUTIFUL IS GOOD Stereotype: attractive people are more extraverted, sociable and popular
They are more assertive, sexual, and happier May be a self-fulfilling prophecy WHAT IS LOVE? Sternbergs Triangular Theory 1) passion 2) intimacy
3) commitment TYPES OF LOVE Companionate Love Intimacy and affection without passion TYPES OF LOVE Passionate Love
Intense longing with physiological arousal TYPES OF LOVE Consummate Love Involves passion, intimacy, and commitment LOVE IS UNIVERSAL Cultural differences in Expectations and experience
Americans value passionate love Asian collectivist societies value companionate love Romantic love is almost universal WHAT IS ATTACHMENT? Attachment an emotional bond between two people
ATTACHMENT Styles usually based on experience with mother/caregiver as a baby Style can be modified in adulthood WHEN, HOW & WHY DOES ATTACHMENT DEVELOP? By 6 months, infants show obvious signs of attachment to
their mothers (primary caregivers) Freud suggested that this is the foundation for all later relationships. Psychoanalysts & behaviorists thought that feeding was the basis for attachment. Harry Harlowe later demonstrated that contact comfort was the important variable.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Harlows Surrogate Mother Experiments Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother
ATTACHMENT & LATER DEVELOPMENT Attachment provides inner feelings of affection & security. Securely attached preschoolers were high in selfesteem, socially competent, cooperative and popular. Avoidantly attached agemates were isolated and disconnected. Resistantly attached agemates were disruptive and
difficult. ATTACHMENT STYLES Mary Ainsworth (1979) identified three attachment styles between infants and caregiver: Secure attachment style (70%) - caregiver is responsive to infants needs; infant trusts caregiver
Avoidant attachment style (20%) - caregiver is distant or rejecting; infant suppresses desire to be close to caregiver Ambivalent attachment style (10%) - caregiver is inconsistently available and overbearing with affection; infant clings anxiously to caregiver and then fights against closeness by pushing away
LINKS BETWEEN ATTACHMENT IN CHILDHOOD AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS IN ADULTHOOD Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver (1987) examined continuity between childhood attachment and romantic relationships Securely attached infants are more likely to have a
secure attachment to adult romantic partner Individuals with avoidant attachment style in childhood find it difficult to develop intimate relationship in adulthood Individuals can revise attachment styles in adulthood TYPES OF ATTACHMENT IN
ADOLESCENCE Secure autonomous Dismissing avoidant Rejected by caregiver; deny importance of attachment; related to violent behavior Preoccupied ambivalent Attachment seeking; parent inconsistently available; high conflict
Unresolved disorganized Had traumatic experience; disoriented, fearful ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLES Secure good relationships: trust; not concerned about being abandoned, sees self-as worthy, well-liked
Insecure avoidant difficulty establishing relationships; quickly end relationships; suppresses attachment needs due to having been rebuffed Ambivalent less trusting, more jealous, tend to anger and emotional intensity, anxiety over concern that need for intimacy will not be reciprocated SOCIAL EXCHANGE
THEORY Economic model of rewards and costs Relationship satisfaction based on: Rewards and costs Relationship deserved Chances of a better relationship SOCIAL EXCHANGE
THEORY Terms Comparison level expectations, relationship satisfaction depends on this Comparison level for alternatives What are your chances of a better relationship? Also affects relationship satisfaction INVESTMENT MODEL
The theory that relationship commitment depends on not only the comparison level and comparison level for alternatives, but on how much they have invested in the relationship and stand to lose if they leave. EQUITY THEORY The best relationships are those where both parties are making roughly equal contributions (and rewards = costs).
These relationships are the most stable and the happiest. ONE PERSON OVERBENEFITTED Low cost, high reward Does not devote enough time and effort to the relationship ONE-PERSON UNDERBENEFITTED
High-cost, low reward Devotes much time and energy Inequity more important to this person ENDING RELATIONSHIPS In America, the divorce rate is nearly 50% of the current marriage rate (Probably more realistically 30% overall).
BEHAVIOR IN TROUBLED RELATIONSHIPS Actively harming the relationship: Partner abuse Threatening to leave Leaving Passively permitting deterioration:
Ignoring partner refusing to deal with problems BEHAVIOR IN TROUBLED RELATIONSHIPS Constructive Behaviors Passive loyalty waiting and being optimistic
not fighting, being supportive Active Attempts to Improve discussing problems going to counseling trying to change THE PROCESS OF BREAKING UP
Breakers feel less distress than breakers. Try to make it mutual.
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