# INTRO to GIS

INTRO to GIS Instructor: Dr. Chunling Liu [email protected] www.clarklabs.org

Lecture 1 GIS and ArcGIS What is GIS Geographic Information Systems Computer tools

Database: Spatial data---addresses Georeferenced--- x, y coordinates GIS Components

Hardware platform: mainframe, PC

Software: ArcGIS, IDRISI Data Storage: CD, USB Input hardware: digitizers, scanners Output hardware: printer, plotter Data: sources and formats; most expensive Personnel: trained and knowledgeable

GIS Basic Functions

Data import and export Data management Thematic mapping Data analysis Map layout/presentation What Can GIS Do

Land use planning Business marketing Crime analysis Utility management Transportation planning

What Do GIS Professionals Do Data providers GIS applications GIS development Distributed GIS database

History of GIS Origin: Cartography Father of GIS: Roger Tomlinson ESRI: leader in GIS industry Father of GIS: Roger Tomlinson

GIS Data Model Vector vs. Raster Vector Shape: point, line, polygon Vector- Example: lakes, rivers, roads, pipelines Raster Surface: grid (cell)

Raster- Example: elevation, rainfall, slope Map: Layers Feature: Geographic Object Point: city

Line: river, road Polygon: lake, country Feature: Location Point: pair of x, y coordinates Line: at least two pairs, beginning and end Polygon: a line returning to starting point

Feature: Size/Scale Ratio: relationship between the size of features on a map and the size of corresponding places in the world Large scale vs. small scale: 1:25, 000 vs. 1:100, 000,000

Feature: Linked to Info Feature: Thematic map Use attributes to create thematic maps Symbology applied to features to indicate attributes

Example: Population Density Energy consumption per capita Feature: Spatial Relationship 1. Which cities are within 50 kilometers of a

river? 2. Which countries have a river that crosses their border? 3. which countries share a border with China? 4. Which countries contain a lake completely within their borders?

Countries Sharing Border with China ArcGIS Products ArcGIS for Desktop: ArcMap, ArcCatalog ArcGIS for Server ArcGIS for Mobile

Data format Shape: .shp Layer: .lyr Geodatabase: .gdb

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