You Booze, You Lose: A Content Analysis of Adolescent Created Print Alcohol Counter-Advertisements Smita C. Banerjee, PhD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Kathryn Greene, PhD, Rutgers University Michael L. Hecht, PhD, Pennsylvania State University Kate Magsamen-Conrad, PhD, Rutgers University Elvira Elek, PhD, RTI International Danielle Catona, MA, Amanda Carpenter, MA, Rutgers University R21 DA027146 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Department of Communication Department of Communication Introduction Alcohol advertising is pervasive Alcohol companies spent more than $8.2 billion placing 2,664,919 alcohol product advertisements on U.S. television from 2001- 2009 (Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2010) Exposure to alcohol advertising increases the likelihood of adolescent alcohol use initiation and/or consumption (Anderson et al., 2009; Smith & Foxcroft, 2009) Thus, it is imperative to counter the potential effects of
advertising on young people 2 Department of Communication Media Literacy One promising approach (media literacy) may help counter potential effects of alcohol advertising on adolescents Media literacy advocates a critical analysis of various kinds of mass media messages, an identification of the functions of the media, and an engagement that encourages students to critically and consciously examine media messages (Considine & Haley, 1992) The Youth Message Development (YMD) curriculum incorporates media literacy principles to reduce underage drinking in high school students 3 Department of Communication YMD Curriculum Goal: students apply critical analysis and media message construction skills to actively create their own alcohol counter- advertisements
YMD curriculum designed to highlight the role of media messages and refine counter-arguing skills through a BRIEF intervention that includes three components: Target audience and understanding persuasive techniques (with a focus on four techniques endorsement, sex, humor, and having fun/being one of the gang), Analysis of claims made in alcohol advertising (including slogans, counterarguing, and consequences), and Planning of production components in alcohol advertising (i.e. the use of people, setting, font, and visuals) 4 Department of Communication Aims of This Study To evaluate how well the students incorporated information learned through the YMD curriculum in creating their own print alcohol counter-advertisements (the last activity) T0 examine differences in application of YMD curriculum content to print alcohol counter-advertisements created by high school adolescents and college students
5 Department of Communication Method Sample N = 72 print alcohol counter-advertisements 49 created by small groups of high school students from across Pennsylvania 23 created by small groups of college students in New Jersey Qualitative Content Analysis A combination of deductive and inductive coding (Elo & Kyngas, 2008) 1st, deductive coding - the structure of analysis operationalized based on YMD curriculum content - ad claims (presence/absence of slogans, counterarguments/consequences), persuasion strategies (presence/absence of endorsement, glamour/sex appeal, having fun/being one of the group, humor/unexpected idea), and production components (people, setting, font, and visuals) 2nd, inductive coding using open and axial coding to identify specific consequences or counter-arguments utilized in posters 6 Department of
Communication Method (continued) Coding Procedures Unit of analysis: the alcohol counter-advertisement poster Two coders independently coded each of the posters The coders received extensive training prior to content analysis Reliability coefficients for all coded variables exceeded acceptable levels, with values ranging from .71 to 1.00 All disagreements resolved by a third coder, resulting in 100% final agreement 7 Department of Communication Results Ad Claims Overall, both high school students and college students used slogans in their posters in order to highlight the main point or message of the ad The posters displayed negative consequences of alcohol use the most, followed by displays of both negative and positive consequences, and positive consequences of not using
alcohol depicted the least 8 Department of Communication High school College 1. Slogans 49 (100%) 23 (100%) - 2. Consequences 49 (100%) 23 (100%) -
c. Negative-positive comparison 13 (26.53%) 6 (26.09%) .01 3. Before-after depict 10 (20.41%) 0 (0%) ill. Drinking and driving Sexual encounter b. Positive cons. 2 .80
.87 - 9 Department of Communication Persuasion Strategies - Identifiable persuasion strategies used in only 37% and 30% of the posters created by high school and college students respectively - Having fun/being one of the gang most frequently used persuasion strategy Coding Categories Frequency in Frequency in 23 2 49 High College Student School Posters Student Posters
Persuasion strategies 1. Endorsement 6 (12.24%) 0 (0%) - 2. Glamour/sex appeal 6 (12.24%) 0 (0%) - 3. Having fun/one of the group 9 (18.37%) 6 (26.09%) .57 10
Department of Communication Production Components All posters incorporated a range of production components such as setting, image size, and object placement A clear setting was evident in 39 (79.59%) of high school and 16 (69.57%) of college posters, and included party, beach, accident site, bathroom, school, sporting event, prison, living room, graveyard, and hospital/rehab Use of colors was evident in all of the posters, and most of the posters utilized more than 6 colors As well, a majority of posters utilized 2 different font sizes to highlight their message Differences between high school and college student posters not statistically significant for any of the content categories 11 Department of Communication Discussion Long-term effects (such as death) may not resonate as
well with adolescents as more immediate and shortterm outcomes of alcohol use (such as vomiting, hangovers) College students identified some different outcomes including unwanted sexual encounters Negative consequences dominated, with positive consequences of not using alcohol underutilized Image-related slogans used more frequently than standalone slogans. 12 Department of Communication Future Research Examine how other adolescents perceive adolescentcreated alcohol counter-advertisements and assess the effectiveness of such counter-advertisements Explore adolescent engagement in message creation leading to self-persuasion and increased resistance to other alcohol-related influences (and therefore decreased alcohol use) Media literacy provides a useful venue for engaging youth in critical examination of persuasive alcohol advertising and in creation of alcohol counteradvertisements, and should be tapped into 13
Department of Communication Acknowledgements This study was supported by grant number R21 DA027146 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to Rutgers University (grant recipient), Kathryn Greene, Principal Investigator. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health Contact: [email protected] Questions? 14
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