Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH METHODS Introduction: The Origins of Psychology Fundamental Questions What is the proper subject matter of psychology? What methods should be used to investigate psychological issues? Should psychological findings be used to change
or enhance human behavior? What is psychology? The science of behavior and mental processes Four Basic Goals of Psychology Influence of Philosophy Aristotle (384322 B.C.E)
Proposed that logic of philosophy can be combined with empirical observations Presented first systematic treatise on psychology Ren Descartes (15961650) Presented doctrine of interactive dualism Suggested that mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other conscious experiences Founders of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) Posited psychology as the study of consciousness; experimental
methods used to study and measure it. Published landmark text Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874) Created first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig (1879) Founder of Psychology First Major Psychological Schools Edward Titchener (18671927) Developed structuralism
approach Proposed introspection and study of basic components of conscious experiences Welcomed women into program First Major Psychological Schools William James (18421910) Developed functionalism Influenced by Charles Darwin; focus was on how behaviors help environmental adaptation Studied how behavior functions
allow people and animals to adapt to their environments Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (18661939) Challenged structuralism and functionalism Powerful influence on later theories of psychology Clark University Started school of thought called
psychoanalysis: Personality theory and form of psychotherapy Other Pioneers of Psychology: Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov (18491936) Russian physiologist Demonstrated that dogs could learn to associate a neutral stimulus with an automatic behavior Other Pioneers of Psychology: Behaviorism
John Watson (18781958) Posited that the goal of the behaviorists was to discover the fundamental principles of learninghow behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental influences B.F. Skinner (19041990) Believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardly observable behaviors that could be measured and verified in compelling experimental demonstrations Contemporary Psychology
Modern psychology has become more diverse, with various perspectives. Psychology itself has become more specialized. Todays psychologists identify themselves according to: the perspective they emphasize in investigating psychological topics the specialty area in which they practice and have been trained. Major Perspectives in Psychology Biological Perspective Psychodynamic
Cross-Cultural Perspective Evolutionary Perspective Perspectives in Psychology Biological perspective Emphasizes the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, and genetics Neuroscience Focus
Research techniques Different from other biological sciences Perspectives in Psychology Psychodynamic perspective Based originally on Freuds work Emphasizes unconscious processes and early experience Current psychologists with this perspective may or may follow Freud or psychoanalytic principles Behavioral perspective Based on Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner Is the study of how behavior is acquired and modified through
experience and environment Mental health professionals may emphasize the behavioral perspective in explaining and treating psychological disorders Perspectives in Psychology Humanistic perspective Based on work of Maslow and Rogers Focuses on personal growth, interpersonal relationships, and selfconcept The humanistic perspective is often emphasized among psychologists working in the mental health field Positive psychology perspective Based on work of Martin Seligman and others Studies how to contribute to optimal functioning and to counterbalance traditional emphasis on problems and disorders
Topics under the umbrella of positive psychology include personal happiness, optimism, creativity, resilience, character strengths, and wisdom Perspectives in Psychology Cognitive perspective Focuses on mental process, memory, perception, language, problem solving, and thinking Initially based on the use of computers as a model for human mental processing Influenced other areas of psychology, including personality psychology
Perspectives in Psychology Cross-cultural perspective Emerged in the 1980s Emphasizes diversity of behavior across cultures and the fact that many earlier psychological findings were not universal Important cultural terms: Ethnocentrism Individualistic cultures Collectivistic cultures Cultural Differences in Everyday Behavior Everyday behavior reflects cultural
norms or unspoken standards of social behavior. How do you think Americans would react to being shoved into a subway car? How did you formulate your response? Perspectives in Psychology Evolutionary perspective Reflects renewed interest in Darwins work Applies the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes
Suggests that most adaptive characteristics are perpetuated through natural selection Analyzes behavior in terms of how it increases a species chances to survive and reproduce Psychologists and Psychiatrists Clinical Psychologists Psychiatrists Trained in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological disorders;
Ph.D. or Psy.D. degrees Have medical degrees (M.D. or D.O.) followed by specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological disorders; Emphasize biological factors and use biomedical therapies Specialty Areas and Employment Settings
Using the Scientific Method Scientific method A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions. Scientific Terms
Empirical evidence Hypothesis Variable Operational definition Statistically significant Meta-analysis Replication The Scientific Method Step 1: Formulate a
specific question that can be tested Form a hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or question Step 2: Design a study to collect relevant data Use descriptive or experimental methodologies
The Scientific Method Step 3: Analyze the data to arrive at conclusions Use statistics to analyze, summarize, and draw conclusions about the data they have collected Step 4: Report the results The rationale for testing the hypothesis Who participated in the study and how they were selected
How variables were operationally defined What procedures or methods were used How the data were analyzed What the results seem to suggest Building Theories Theory Tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations Often reflects self-correcting nature of the
scientific enterprise PseudoscienceThe Warning Signs Strategy 1: Testimonials rather than scientific evidence Strategy 2: Scientific jargon without scientific substance Strategy 3: Combining established scientific knowledge with unfounded claims Strategy 4: Irrefutable or nonfalsifiable claims Strategy 5: Confirmation bias Strategy 6: Shifting the burden of proof Strategy 7: Multiple outs Research Strategies Descriptive: Strategies for observing and
describing behavior Naturalistic observation Case studies Surveys Correlational methods Experimental: Strategies for inferring cause and effect relationships among variables
Surveys Designed to investigate opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group; usually done in self-report form Problems Do people answer honestly? One strategy is to ask the same question in different manners Computer surveys may elicit more honesty Important Terms in Survey Design Sample A selected
segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied. Representative Sample A selected segment that very closely parallels, on relevant characteristics, the larger
population being studied Random Selection Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study
Correlation Correlational study: Research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other Correlation coefficient: Numerical indication of magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables Correlation Positive correlation: A finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together Negative correlation: A finding that two factors
vary systematically in opposite directions, one increasing as the other decreases Correlation and Causality Even if two factors are very strongly correlated, correlation does not necessarily indicate causality. A correlation reveals only that two factors seem to be related or that they co-vary in a systematic way. Only experiments allow for
cause-and-effect statements. Can eating curly fries or listening to Morgan Freeman cause high intelligence? Experimental Research Is used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables Involves deliberately varying one factor, which is called the independent variable Measures the changes, if any, that are produced in a second factor, called the dependent variable May sometimes include unwanted confounding or
extraneous variables Psychological Research Using Brain Imaging Types: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Detects increased blood by increased utilization of radioglucose Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analyzes molecular response of nervous tissue to magnetic fields Functional MRI (fMRI) Uses magnetic fields to detect metabolic activity in nervous system and to detail neural activity
Limitations of brain-imaging studies: Usually have a small number of subjects Focus is on simple aspects of behavior Localizing a process in the brain doesnt explain it Positron Emission Tomography (PET) PET scans provide color-coded images of the brains activity. This example shows the comparison between subjects learning a new language task (left) and performing the language task after it has been well learned (right). Ethics in Psychological Research
Psychological research conducted in the United States is subject to ethical guidelines developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). There are 5 key provisions in the most recent APA ethical guidelines regulating research with human participants. The Shocking Treatment of Research Participants?
Key Provisions in the Most Recent APA Ethical Guidelines Regulating Research with Human Participants Informed consent and voluntary participation Students as research participants The use of deception Confidentiality of information Information about the study and debriefing Successful Study Techniques Focus your attention.
In the Engage your classroom, mind: Be an take notes by active hand, not on reader. your laptop. Practice retrieval. Use
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