Introduction to Animals What is an Animal? Animal Characteristics Cannot make their own food Digest their food (food has to be broken down in order for their bodies to use the proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Many move
Multicellular Eukaryotic (have a nucleus) Classification of Animals Scientists have divided the Animal Kingdom into two main groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and
invertebrates (animals without a backbone) The Animal Kingdom The animal kingdom is broken down into 9 major phyla 1) 2) 3) 4)
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Sponge Cnidarian Flatworm
Roundworm Echinoderm Mollusk Annelid Arthropod Chordate Vertebrates To classify animals scientists first see if the animal has a backbone.
Animals with a backbone are called vertebrates. Some vertebrate animals are: fish humans birds snakes elephants mice
Vertebrates Animals with a backbone. Invertebrates About 97% of all animal species are invertebrates- they dont have backbones. Some examples of invertebrate animals are:
Animals with backbones can be divided into Mammals five more groups: Birds Amphibian s
Reptiles Fish Symmetry- Radial Once scientists have determined whether an animal has a backbone they will look to see if the animals body has symmetry. Any cut through the center of an organism with radial symmetry
(dorsal to ventral) results in roughly equal halves in terms of organs and body parts. What has radial symmetry? Only cnidarians and ctenophores have true radial symmetry. (What the heck is a ctenophore? Its similar to a jellyfish. They are commonly known as comb jellies.)
Partial Radial Symmetry Echinoderms like this brittle star have partial radial symmetry. Bilateral Symmetry Most animals have bilateral symmetry. An animal with
bilateral symmetry has its body parts arranged in the same way on both sides of its body. Bilateral animals can be divided into right and left halves by drawing an imaginary line down the length of its body. What has bilateral symmetry?
Asymmetry Some organisms have no definite shape and are said to be asymmetrical. There is no way their bodies can be
divided into matching halves. Skeletal Systems Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Exoskeleton-Invertebrates external skeleton
Arthropods and Mollusks Arthropods skeleton is made of a material called chitin and must be shed to permit growth. Mollusks skeleton is made by the mantle from calcium carbonate. Endoskeleton- Vertebrates
Internal skeleton Grows with the organism Made of cartilage or a combination of cartilage and bone.
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