Introduction to APPSI-2

Introduction to APPSI-2

Students with Severe/Profound Impairments Widely diverse in their impairments as well as educational and medical needs: Vision, hearing, motor impairments Cognitive impairment Emotional impairments Autism Multiple impairments Other health issues Limited communication skills Challenges They Present for Psychologists

May require several sessions to establish adequate rapport May tire quickly and thus, need multiple short assessment sessions Sometimes may not understand what you are asking, become upset, and display problematic behavior You may be uncertain what to assess given their impairments You may conclude incorrectly, they are untestable Despite the wide diversity in their impairments, skills and educational needs One thing they all share is the capacity to learn

(Snell, 2003, p. 2210) Along with teachers, we have the responsibility to help make learning possible for them For some students skills appropriate to teach next may be very basic e.g., raising a finger, but they can be very important. These skills may enable a student to gain some control over his/her environment. Such skills may enhance the quality of life for these students.

APPSI-2 Purposes of APPSI-2 1. Help develop individualized instructional programs: What can the student do? What skills are appropriate to teach next? 2. Provide 2 options for monitoring student progress 3. If needed, provide estimated levels of functioning A Standardized Test

APPSI-2 has standardized procedures regarding how to administer, score, and interpret results Enables examiners to determine: Student strengths, Skills appropriate to teach next, and Appropriate methods for teaching those skills Not norm-referenced Instead, each item is age-referenced based on the progress of typically-developing children to age 2 APPSI-2 Not Norm-Referenced

Impossible to obtain a large enough, representative national sample for these students Norm-referenced tests serve an important function for many students, but a) limit examiners freedom to improvise and probe responses, b) the settings for normed tests are contrived Not Norm-Referenced Though APPSI-2 is standardized in terms of how to administer and score items, and use results Examiners are encouraged to:

Adapt administration procedures to meet a students needs Probe responses to get an adequate sample of a performance Test in a comfortable environment for the student 5 Domains for a Comprehensive Assessment Two APPSI-2 domains address components necessary for instruction Components of these 2 domains facilitate

engagement with the environment which is critical if learning is to occur: Alertness Domain Preferences Domain for: a) types of stimuli b) types of rewards The other 3 domains assess developmental abilities a student displays and those appropriate for instruction: Prerequisite Problem Solving Domain

Communication Domain Social-Emotional Domain Use of APPSI-2 Domains One domain or a combination of any or all domains can be given, depending on student needs. Instructions appear on each record book and in the manual. Students are not timed. A stopwatch is used for some domains to determine when to record examiner observations Several items appear on more than one APPSI-2 domain. If so, noted on record book

APPSI-2 Components Examiners manual Record Forms: 3 for Preferences Domains (1 for Stimulus Preferences, 2 for Reward Preferences: Choice or Approach) 1 for Alertness Domain 1 for Prerequisite Problem Solving + Communication Domains (combined) 1 for Social-Emotional Domain Goal Attainment Scale Form

Materials kit The Alertness Domain Infrequent and/or short duration of alert states is frequently an issue for these students, e.g., drowsy, asleep, agitated. An alert state is necessary for learning; A non-alert state competes with learning Increasing engagement with the environment can enhance a students quality of life

Assessing State of Alertness One 5-minute observation in A.M. and one in P.M. for 2 days (during instruction or other classroom activity). Observe about the same time each day; days do not have to be consecutive. Every 15 seconds, record on the record book the students state using the definitions provided on the Record Form of various alertness states. Examples of Definitions of State

SLEEP: Eyes closed May display some physical movement and vocalize. Does not respond to environment. DROWSY: Eyes closed or if open has difficulty keeping eyes open and does not appear to focus. May display a startle or some movement and/or vocalize. Primarily no response to environment OTHER CATEGORIES OF STATE: Alert, self- Alertness State Results may assist physicians

in titrating a students medication Optional Sleep Patterns Questionnaire completed by caregivers Discussion of results may assist caregivers in improving students quality of sleep Alertness State A measure of state may be the best system currently available to monitor progress of students with severe/profound impairments (Richards & Richards, 1997) Few meaningful measures to monitor progress of

these students One of 2 APPSI-2 methods for monitoring student progress. If instruction is effective, a students alertness will Preferences Domain Stimulus Preferences taps: a) Type of stimuli student is likely to attend to (i.e., visual, auditory, tactile) b) How intense must a stimulus be to evoke a response Reward Preferences identifies potential reinforcers:

Person administering should be familiar to student to ensure his/her comfort One form is for students able to indicate choices and another is for those who cannot Prerequisite Problem Solving & Communication Domains Items are administered directly to the student Each item is tested twice The educational importance of each item is noted on the record book Items can be adapted as needed, e.g., use of

sign, gestures, special lighting, communication devices Prerequisite Problem Solving & Communication Domains Age levels for items are based on studies and age-based items from norm-referenced tests for typically-developing children from birth to 2 years of age. Thus, item age levels can be used to estimate level of functioning in terms of first-year and second-year skills.

Performance on individual items helps plan instruction to aid problem solving and communication Socio-Emotional Domain Checklist of skills facilitating interaction with others Uses multiple information sources, e.g., teachers, parents, your direct observation, direct testing Adapt items as necessary based on students

needs Only 2 Social-Emotional items require vocalization Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) Method to determine goals for instruction and evaluate effects of instruction (i.e., monitor progress) Used for many years in human service settings A systematic approach to address accountability Particularly useful for students with disabilities, especially those with severe conditions

GAS Matrix Format Attainment Levels Best outcome More than expected outcome Expected outcome Less than expected outcome Worst outcome Attainment Levels 2 Best outcome

1 More than expected outcome 0 Expected outcome -1 Less than expected outcome -2 Worst outcome Indicate period of instruction, e.g., 6 weeks or fall semester The longer the instructional period, the more ambitious the goals For some students 3 goals are appropriate, for

others 1 or 2, depending on goals selected. Attainment Levels Goal 1 Communicatio n 2 Best outcome Routinely uses methods

other than crying to obtain others attention 1 More than expected outcome Sometimes vocalizes and reaches toward others without prompts to gain attention 0 Expected outcome

With verbal prompt vocalizes and reaches toward others to gain attention -1 Less than expected outcome With physical and verbal prompts vocalizes and reaches to gain others

attention Goal 2 Attainment Levels 2 Best outcome Goal 1 Communicatio n Routinely uses methods

other than crying to obtain others attention AL 1 More than expected outcome Sometimes vocalizes and reaches toward others without prompts to gain attention

0 Expected outcome With verbal prompt vocalizes and reaches toward others to gain attention -1 Less than expected outcome With physical and verbal prompts vocalizes and reaches to gain others

attention -2 Worst outcome Cries to gain others attention BL Goal 2 Describe results in terms of outcomes:

During this semester Jerods ability to gain others attention progressed from crying only to routinely vocalizing and reaching toward others to gain their attention. or quantitively: During this semester Jerod progressed from a -2 to a +2 in terms of his ability to gain others attention. or use both: During this semester Jerods ability to gain others attention progressed from use of crying only to

routinely vocalizing and reaching toward others to gain their attention. His communication skills improved from a -2 to a +2. Advantages of the GAS Matrix: 1. Progression makes it easy for parents and teachers to see a students progress....and what to work on next 2. Easy to use 3. Flexible; uses information specific to the student

4. Avoids use of stating student did or did not meet the goal. With skills sequenced from best to worst indicates the degree to which a student exceeded or failed to meet a goal, rather than did or did not meet a goal.

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