Introduction to Argument Not to be confused with arguement or Consider this. . . One of the biggest problems in the world today is that we have large groups of people who will accept whatever they hear on the grapevine, just because it suits their worldview not because it is actually true or because they have evidence to support it. The really striking thing is that it would not take much effort to establish validity in most of these cases. . . But people prefer
All Communication/ Discourse Argume nt (Messag e) Desired Effect or Outcome Speake r Audien ce Language has the power to motivate, to change, to dispel, and to create.
Persuasion surrounds us, creating a real-world Matrix: Political labeling Advertising News channels Relationships Most academic writing is argument. Rhetoric is arguments decoder. Persuasion vs.
Argument Argument is a Persuasion is a broad term used to describe tactics designed to move people to a position, a belief, or a course of action. Its tactics are usually mercenary: term used to describe a claim that is constructed and supported
according to the specific conventions of the academic discipline in Persuasion Show of playing an audience, often with scare tactics Children do this
Elementary and ineffective in academic settings Implies a benefit of the doubt reaction from an audience An excuse Argument Show of artful intelligence
This is for the big kids Well founded and respected Will minimize or eliminate doubt due to factual support A reason
Persuasion Argument Claim or Position (one Claim or Position (one that has multiple sides) Logical rationale (based in fact**, i.e., what can be demonstrated)
Organization of reliable and valid evidence is key. Structure and style Cites its sources that has multiple sides) Rationale can be emotionally based or based on fallacy**
True evidence is not necessary (ex: Please?) Structure and style Sources are not necessary Ethos, Pathos, Logos (and why we dont focus on them)
Ethos- appeal based on credibility of a speaker Pathos- appeal based on any emotion Logos- appeal based on facts and logic Why dont we focus on these terms? Logos is the foundation for all argument, even pathetic and ethical appeals. If you start analyzing or constructing an argument and the strongest elements Persona
Persona is the aspect of an authors personality that is revealed through language. Rhetorical device It is like voice, except with persona, we attribute a kind of person to the way the reader the audience perceives the speaker. More often than not, youll want to use an academic persona when writing formal essays. When analyzing for persona, ask yourself: What kind of person do I imagine saying this? How it works. . .
In different social situations, you will find that you change your language style, sometimes subtly, and other times quite dramatically. In each situation, you are portraying a particular persona. You are trying to portray yourself a certain way. In what ways does your persona change when speaking to your friends? your teammates? your mother? your grandfather? your teacher? your significant other? your boss? Your persona may also change even within each of these contexts, depending on the message youre delivering.
Example 1 If you really want to hear about it, the first thing youll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I dont feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth. In the first place that stuff bores me, and in the second place, my parents would have about two hemorrhages apiece if I told you anything pretty personal about them. From The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Example 2 The library afforded me the means of improvement by constant study, for which I set apart an hour or two each day; and thus repaird in some degree the loss of the learned education my father once intended for me. Reading was the only amusement I allowd myself. I spent no time in taverns, games, or
frolics of any kind. And my industry in my business continud as indefatigable as it was necessary. From The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Basic Steps to Writing an Argument Step 1: Evaluate/establish a clear thesis. Thesis = an assertion = a claim Three types of claims: Claim of fact (existence) Claim of policy (call for action)
Claim of value (good or bad) Beware of assumptions! Assumptions about audience Assumptions about truth Steps 2 and 3: Gather Evidence and Acknowledge the Argument. Identify and evaluate/establish
premises (main points) for each side. Identify and evaluate/establish evidence used to support premises for your side and any opposition. Identify/establish concessions (admitting in the argument that other points of view exist and may have merit) Arguments are most successful when they anticipate logic and tactics of any opposition. Step 4 : Evaluate/establish logical structure. Identify/establish pattern
Introduction organizational and Thesis Proof (reasoning and evidence) Concession/Refutation Conclusion Fallacy Illogical reasoning; often an intentional flaw created to manipulate the evidence and mislead ones audience, but sometimes an unknowing flaw in reasoning due to ones carelessness or ignorance. (Note: whether intentional or
What to pay attention to The language is troublesome (a lot of these are in Latin, because Cicero first described them). However, the ideas are simple: When identifying fallacies, describe the error you see. Remembering the term is just icing. When writing an argument, remember the patterns of these flaws, and avoid them. Remembering the term is just icing. Ad hominem: the fallacy of personal attack. Instead of arguing with someones position, one attacks the person. Ex: Mr. Herrera and Mrs. McCarthy are academic elitists and do not deserve our vote. Ad populum: the fallacy of substituting proof of popularity for evidence. Newsflash: the fact that
an expert or a whole ton of people think something is right does not make it right! Ex: Jill and Jane have some concerns that the rules their sorority has set are racist in character. Jill brings her concerns up in the next meeting. The president of the sorority assures Jill that there is nothing wrong with the rules, since the majority of the sisters like them. Jill accepts this ruling. Either-or reasoning, a.k.a. the false dilemma fallacy: oversimplification that presents an issue only in two ways, either X or Y. Ex: If youre not for us, youre against us. False analogy: an unreliable comparison, sometimes expressed as comparing apples and oranges. Ex: People might say that like Rome, America is destined for
destruction; however, modern America is quite unlike ancient Rome in most respects. Stacking the evidence: the writer or speaker purposefully ignores opposing evidence to create a one-sided argument. Ex: The earth has always had warming and cooling trends; this is just another warming trend. Straw man: ignoring a person's actual position and substituting a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position. Ex: "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that." Use Rhetoric!
Become familiar with the effects of the rhetorical strategies we are studying. Get comfortable using them. Choose strategies based on your own well-informed position about your topic Seem like a lot to remember?
Pre-write and plan your writing. ALWAYS! This allows you to manage one piece of the writing task at a time instead of all of them at once. Your argument (or analysis of) will be more clear, and baby seals will be saved in the Arctic (only one of those things is true).
Romantic literature is dominated by poetry. The triumvirate of Keats, Shelley, and Byron are still well-known. The poetry of Keats is sentimental, that of Shelley intense, and Byron displays a mastery of sardonic wit. *Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual...
3. Rationalise the Denominator. a) b) c) Write a definition for each key word: Irrational, Rational. Denominator, Factor. Make a poste/revision sheet explaining how to rationalise the denominator. Why are irrational numbers called surds? A Sequence of numbers is:-What are...
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La disparition de ces structures aura pour conséquence l'émergence de nouveaux opérateurs tant nationaux que internationaux avec pour conséquences: Une . baisse des niveaux de rémunération . des producteurs. Le développement . des achats bords champs pour la quasi-totalité ....
Data= Evidence. This is the facts and figures that prove you right. (The gun has his fingerprints on it, You can see the scratch on the car, the doctor says she's too weak) Warrant= Explanation. This is how your evidence...
Mr Henshall - Holly. ... Miss Willis. Reading record and homework diary expectations. Please help us by checking and signing the homework diary at least once a week. Class teachers or teaching assistants will check and sign the diaries on...
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