# Introduction to Assessment Literacy

ALIGNMENT INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Define ALIGNMENT for the purpose of these modules and explain why it is important Explain how to UNPACK A STANDARD to understand its content Use the ASSESSMENT BLUEPRINT to document skills KEY CONCEPTS

KEY CONCEPTS alignment degree to which the content of an assessment is aligned with the content of the standards you intend to measure and what you plan to teach in the classroom Sources: Kansas State Department of Education, Assessment Literacy Project; Ohio Department of Education, Assessment Literacy: Identifying and Developing Valid and Reliable Assessments (2013). KEY CONCEPTS

content core concepts and procedures in a standard, assessment or assessment item Sources: Kansas State Department of Education, Assessment Literacy Project; Ohio Department of Education, Assessment Literacy: Identifying and Developing Valid and Reliable Assessments (2013). KEY CONCEPTS Source: Moody, Michael, and Jason Stricker, Strategic Design for Student Achievement (2008). KEY CONCEPTS

KEY CONCEPTS a b c Source: Moody, Michael, and Jason Stricker, Strategic Design for Student Achievement (2008). KEY CONCEPTS a a b c

KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, (for example, interpret 56 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each). For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 8. Source: Tennessee Department of Education, Tennessees State Mathematics Standards: Grade 3 (2010).

KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, (for example, interpret 56 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each). For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 8. Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers.

KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Source: Tennessee Department of Education, Tennessees State Mathematics Standards: Grade 4 (2010).

KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding.

KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers.

KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers.

Use the four operations. KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding.

Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers. Use the four operations. Interpret remainders. KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of

answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers. Use the four operations. Interpret remainders. Use equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which

remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers. Use the four operations. Interpret remainders. Use equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Use mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. KEY CONCEPTS

a b c KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, (for example, interpret 56 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects

each). For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 8. KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, (for example, interpret 56 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each). For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 8.

What is 12 5? KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers. What is 12 5? 2.4 or 2 with a remainder of 2 KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, (for example, interpret 56 8 as the

number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each). For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 8. What is 12 3? KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers. What is 12 3?

4 KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers. What is 12 3? 4 KEY CONCEPTS

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers. Use the four operations. Interpret remainders. Use equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity.

Use mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Peter made the statement shown below: The number 32 is a multiple of 8. That means all of

the factors of 8 are also factors of 32. Is Peters statement correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. Source: Louisiana Department of Education, Mathematics Grade 4Unit 1 (Sample). KEY CONCEPTS factor a whole number you can multiply with another whole number to get a third number KEY CONCEPTS multiple the result of multiplying a number by a whole number

KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Peter made the statement shown below: The number 32 is a multiple of 8. That means all of

the factors of 8 are also factors of 32. Is Peters statement correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Peter made the statement shown below:

The number 32 is a multiple of 8. That means all of the factors of 8 are also factors of 32. Is Peters statement correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and

estimation strategies, including rounding. Mr. Torres sold a total of 30 boxes of sports cards at his store on Monday. These boxes contained only baseball cards and football cards. Each box contained 25 sports cards. He earned \$3 for each sports card he sold. He earned a total of \$1,134 from the football cards he sold. What amount of money did Mr. Torres earn from the baseball cards he sold? In the space below, use pictures, Source: Oregon Department of Education, Grade 4to Mathematics ER Item

Claim 2. your answer. numbers and/or words showSample how you got KEY CONCEPTS Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must

be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Mr. Torres sold a total of 30 boxes of sports cards at his store on Monday. These boxes contained only baseball cards and football cards. Each box contained 25 sports cards. He earned \$3 for each sports card he sold. He earned a total of \$1,134 from the football cards he sold. What amount of money did Mr. Torres earn from the baseball cards he sold? In the space below, use pictures, numbers and/or words to show how you got your answer. KEY CONCEPTS

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers. Use the four operations. Interpret remainders. Use equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity.

Use mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. KEY CONTENT Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. Solve a multistep word problem with whole numbers.

Use the four operations. Interpret remainders. Use equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Use mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS Sources: Ohio Department of Education, Ohios New Learning Standards: English Language Standards (2010); Student Achievement Partners, Mini-Assessment for Who Was Marco Polo? by Joan Holub and The Adventures of Marco Polo by Russell Freedman (2014).

KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS 1. Primary Purpose of the Assessment 2. Standard(s) (one per row) 3. Skill(s) (one per row) 4. Level(s) of Rigor 5. Possible Type(s) of Items Level(s) of Rigor # of Points

% of Assessment 6. Write and/or Select Assessment Items Item # TOTAL Standard(s) and/or Skill(s) Type of Item KEY CONCEPTS 1. Primary Purpose of the Assessment 2. Standard(s) (one per row)

Summative 3. Skill(s) (one per row) 4. Level(s) of Rigor 5. Possible Type(s) of Items Level(s) of Rigor # of Points % of Assessment Reading Informational Text 1:

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domainspecific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1:

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 6. Write and/or Select Assessment Items Item # TOTAL Standard(s) and/or Skill(s) Type of Item KEY CONCEPTS 2. Standard(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1:

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

KEY CONCEPTS 1. Primary Purpose of the Assessment 2. Standard(s) (one per row) Summative 3. Skill(s) (one per row) 4. Level(s) of Rigor 5. Possible Type(s) of Items Level(s) of Rigor # of Points

% of Assessment Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domainspecific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to

support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 6. Write and/or Select Assessment Items Item # TOTAL Standard(s) and/or Skill(s) Type of Item

KEY CONCEPTS 2. Standard(s) (one per row) 3. Skill(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Quote accurately from the text (explicitly and when making inferences). Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details;

summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Quote accurately from the text (explicitly and when making inferences).

KEY CONCEPTS 2. Standard(s) (one per row) 3. Skill(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts. Support your point of view with reasons and information. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts. Support your point of view with reasons and information.

KEY CONCEPTS 2. Standard(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 3. Skill(s) (one per row) KEY CONCEPTS 2. Standard(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from

the text. Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a

point of view with reasons and information. 3. Skill(s) (one per row) KEY CONCEPTS 2. Standard(s) (one per row) 3. Skill(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Quote accurately from the text (explicitly and when making inferences). Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Identify main ideas and how key details support them. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words

and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Determine the meaning of new vocabulary words. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Explain how the author uses evidence to support his or her claims.

Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Write an opinion piece on texts. Support your point of view with evidence. KEY CONCEPTS 1. Primary Purpose of the Assessment Summative 2. Standard(s) (one per row)

3. Skill(s) (one per row) Reading Informational Text 1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Quote accurately from the text (explicitly and making inferences). Reading Informational Text 2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

Identify main ideas and how key details support them. Reading Informational Text 4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domainspecific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Determine the meaning of new vocabulary words. Reading Informational Text 8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which

reasons and evidence support which point(s). Explain how the author uses evidence to support his or her claims. Writing 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 4. Level(s) of Rigor 5. Possible Type(s) of Items # of Points

% of Assessment Write an opinion piece on texts. Support your point of view with evidence. 6. Write and/or Select Assessment Items Item # TOTAL Standard(s) and/or Skill(s)

Type of Item Level(s) of Rigor CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING Define ALIGNMENT for the purpose of these modules and explain why it is important Explain how to UNPACK A STANDARD to understand its content Use the ASSESSMENT BLUEPRINT to document skills

CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING 1. Why is alignment critical to a well-designed assessment? What might happen if an assessment item is not aligned in terms of content? CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING 1. Why is alignment critical to a well-designed assessment? What might happen if an assessment item is not aligned in terms of content?

CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING 1. Why is alignment critical to a well-designed assessment? What might happen if an assessment item is not aligned in terms of content? Alignment is critical to a well-designed assessment because it ensures that an assessment measures what teachers intend it to measure. If the content in an assessment is different from the content in the standards and skills a teacher intends to measure, she may unintentionally measure her students ability to do something else. For example, if a teacher were to write an assessment item to measure her students ability to add fractions, she could unintentionally measure her students advanced reading ability if she uses

CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING 2. Consider whether the assessment item is aligned with the content in this writing standard from Hawaii: Create an organizational structure that lists reasons and provide reasons that support the opinion. Here is the item: Read the paragraph and complete the task that follows it. Children should choose their own bedtime. There are things to do, and most have homework. Some people need more sleep, but children like talking to friends. The time to go to bed should be childrens decision when they are tired they go to bed earlier. There are activities to go to, so children learn to be responsible.

Rewrite the paragraph by organizing it correctly and adding Source: Hawaii Department of Education, Language Arts Grade 3 Common Core Standards. ideas that support the opinion that is given. CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING 2. Consider whether the assessment item is aligned with the content in this writing standard from Hawaii: Create an organizational structure that lists reasons and provide reasons that support the opinion. Here is the

item: Read the paragraph and complete the task that follows it. Children should choose their own bedtime. There are things to do, and most have homework. Some people need more sleep, but children like talking to friends. The time to go to bed should be childrens decision when they are tired they go to bed earlier. There are activities to go to, so children learn to be responsible. Rewrite the paragraph by organizing it correctly and adding ideas that support the

CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING 2. Rewrite the paragraph by organizing it correctly and adding ideas that support the opinion that is given. The standard includes two skills: Create an organizational structure that lists reasons and provide reasons that support the opinion. The item asks students to reorganize the paragraph, which measures mastery of the first skill. It also asks students to add ideas that support the opinion that is given, which measures mastery of the second skill. CONCLUSION

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