Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003

Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003

Prisons and Jails Chapter 13 Introduction Introduction to to Criminal Criminal Justice Justice 2003: 2003: AA Microsoft Microsoft PowerPoint PowerPoint Tool Tool Slides Slides prepared prepared by:

by: Larry Larry Bassi Bassi SUNY SUNY Brockport Brockport 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. William Penn New, more humane system introduced forbidding torture Imprisonment at hard labor & moderate flogging with restitution

All lands and goods were to be forfeited Ordered houses of corrections to be built Pennsylvania Prison System Characteristics Solitary confinement with in-cell labor Cells large by existing standards Modestly appointed: bed, table, chair, bucket & bible A place to reflect on wrong doings and improve ones moral character - to get right with God Eastern State Penitentiary

Eastern Eastern State State Penitentiary Penitentiary in in Philadelphia Philadelphia was was considered considered one one of of the the most most progressive progressive designs.

designs. It It was was studied studied and and replicated replicated throughout throughout the the world world The New York (Auburn System): An Alternative to the Pennsylvania System Sometimes called the tier system

Based on fear of punishment & silent confinement Congregate work conditions Separate & silent conditions at night Enforced silence was the key to discipline Reforms & Reformers: The Elmira Reformatory People People like like Zebulon Zebulon Brockway

Brockway End corporal punishment Education Meaningful industries and vocational training Focus on reintegration The Inmate Population of the United States 2,000 Total Inmates

In Custody (x 1,000) 1,500 - 1,000 - 500 | 1985 |

| | | | | | | |

| | 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Year Why Have Prison Populations Grown? Stricter enforcement of drug laws Increased probability of incarceration Inmates serve more time for each crime Revocation of community-based sanctions

Rise in incarceration rates of women Models of Prison Organization Custodial Model Rehabilitative Model Reintegration Model State Prison Organization Basic classifications: Gender

Age Security Male Super Max Max Med Min State Prison Dept. Female Juvenile

Male Female Organization Chart for a Typical Correctional Facility Maximum Security Prisons Fortresses Cells / Blocks / Wings Standard uniform & dress codes Everything based on security (lock

psychosis) Security Levels in Virginia Medium Security Prisons Similar appearance to maximum security Security is less intense More privileges More treatment effort Minimum Security Prisons No armed guards or walls House most trustworthy

& least violent offenders Dormitory style housing or small rooms Critics complain they are country clubs in a prison setting Prison Mission The The mission mission of of a a prison prison is is to

to keep keep prisoners prisoners -- to to keep keep them them in, in, keep keep them them safe, safe, keep keep them them in in line,

line, keep keep them them healthy, healthy, and and keep keep them them busy busy -and and to to do do it it with with fairness,

fairness, without without undue undue suffering suffering and and as as efficiently efficiently as as possible. possible. Two Models of Prison Management

CONTROL MODEL Inmates forced to abide by stringent prison rules infractions summarily punished. PARTICIPATION MODEL Programs established that allowed inmates to govern some aspects of their prison lives Private Prisons

Save money through: Less labor costs Competitive bidding Less red-tape Arguments Against Private Prisons Punishment is sanctioned by the government, therefore it should be carried out by the government Corner cutting to save costs Manipulation of inmate behavior to insure that maximum sentences will be served (thereby creating its own supply and demand relationship.

Purpose of Jails in America A branch of local government - county Pre-trial detention Detain offenders awaiting sentencing Confine misdemeanants Hold probation & parole violators

Relieve prison overcrowding through contracts with the state The Characteristics of Americas Jail Population Profile of Jail Inmates 1996 Jail Conditions Operated under concept of custodial convenience Understaffed, underpaid Lack of basic programs and services Suicides common

Jail Populations Jail populations have been increasing 84 00 Arrests increased Increase in admissions to jail Increase in felons sentenced to local jails

Increase in the number of inmates charged or convicted of drug offenses More held in jail because of crowded prisons Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration A significant number of criminal acts are prevented by repeat offenders Severe social and psychological consequences for prisoners and their families Loss of public dollars for other worthy projects

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