Introduction to development

Introduction to development

Happy Friday Morning to ya! Pretty please get the two papers from the table next to the door Someone needs to get their textbook from the board Nope, havent graded FRQs yet. Will ASAP I am staying after MONDAY for test corrections Introduction to Development

First World vs. Third World Refers to economic development Diversity and complexity of economy High per capita income Developed during the Cold War First World referred to capitalistic western countries Generally more affluent Second World was countries developing communism Third World referred to politically neutral countries Changed to now refer to less developed countries

Three Worlds Model The Brandt line Willy Brandt (1980) Highlights growing gap in social and economic development between the developed and less developed world

Mutually dependent on each other Warned against North establishing economic barriers against growing industrial South Economic Standard of Living Economic Indicators Wealth

Jobs Examples of measures Gross Domestic Product(GDP) - the total value of all goods and services produced in a country Gross National Product(GNP) GDP plus earnings from foreign investment GNP per capita - GNP divided by the total population The types of jobs people do differ between countries. In more economically developed countries (MEDCs) more

people work in tertiary and quaternary jobs. In less economically developed countries (LEDCs) more people work in primary jobs such as farming and secondary jobs such as agricultural. Social Standard of Living Economic Indicators Health Education

Equality Examples of measures Life expectancy - Average age people live to. Crude Death Rate(CDR) - Deaths per 1,000 per year. Infant mortality Rate Number of infants who die per 1,000 every year Crude Birth Rate (CBR) - Births per 1,000 per year. Percentage in primary education. Literacy Rate Percentage of people who can read and write

Equal opportunities for women. Fair distribution of wealth Freedom of speech The Human Development Index (HDI) Stresses people and their capabilities as a measure for a country Not economic growth Takes into account government policy issues Created by Indian and Pakistani economists in 1990

Gives countries a score from 0 to 1 Above .8 is highly developed Under .6 is low development Mapping the HDI Measuring the HDI Uses social and economic keys to measure development Average Life Expectancy Educational Attainment

Average amount of schooling for adults over 25 Expected number of years of schooling for children Gross National Income Per Capita Uses purchasing power parity (PPP) to compare income vs. cost of living More Developed Countries (MDCs) Countries with better access to wealth and resources are considered MDCs Measures Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita,

level of industrializations, life expectancy, standard of living and literacy level MDCs commonly have HDI levels over .80 LDCs have an HDI under .7 Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) Characteristics of an NIC Strong, stable government A switch from agricultural to manufacturing and service jobs

A focus on exports and trade Products are kept cheap and competitive by using cheap, well-disciplined workers Profits are usually invested in developing more industries and buying home produced goods-a multiplier effect Over time the workforce becomes better educated and more skilled Factors Impacting Development: Physical

Climate Many of the poorest countries are in the tropics where it is hot, the land is less fertile, water is scarce, and diseases flourish. Natural Resources Some raw materials are valuable and can help a country develop if they have the resources to collect and process them. Location Being near trade routes and having access to the sea Natural hazards Some places are vulnerable to natural disasters.

Factors Impacting Development: Political Trade Unfair trade balance that makes it hard for LDCs to compete Histories of MDCs exploiting LDCs for their natural resources Corruption/poor management Countries need strong, stable and honest leaders to help them develop War

Wars use up resources and make it difficult to produce goods and trade. Factors Impacting Development: Social Discrimination Some groups may have less opportunities and this can hold back overall development Population

Over population occurs where population growth outstrips resources.

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