Introduction to Humanities

Introduction to Humanities

Art appreciation Outline Humanities Etymology Definition Why do we need to study Humanities? History Other related fields in humanities

Art Etymology Definition Work of Art Importance of Art Functions of Art Categories Different classifications Other Classification Elements Principles Different subject of work of art

Different ways of presenting the subject Artist and his medium Artist and his technique Outline Painting History Filipino Painters Purposes Elements Different mediums

Different techniques Sculpture Etymology Definition History Materials Elements Types Function Processes & technique

Music Etymology Definition Function Properties Elements Different mediums Kinds Outline Dance Etymology

Definition History Elements Different kinds Photography Etymology Definition History Modes of production Steps

Example of photographs Award giving body Cinema Etymology Definition History Elements Different kinds humanities

ETYMOLOGY It came from the Latin word humanus which means refined, culture and human Refined - Norms, being civilize, and socialize Cultured - Adaptation to environment (social interaction, norms) Human - Having the nature of people, being a person Definition

- - The expression of ourselves without using of words (painting, sculptures, dancing, mosaic, cross stitch, collage, paper and folding) The study of mans expression feelings, thought, intuition, values, and ideas The study of mans experience, goals, and aspirations It is used to dramatize individual expressions

Why do we need to study humanities? The humanities serve to provide the student with certain skills and values through the arts. Students learn to appreciate the importance of value that no other subject can describe those values which are directly an exact. Aim of Humanities During Medieval Age The humanities dealt with the metaphysics of the

religious philosopher. During Renaissance Period To make man richer because during that time only the rich people can make art like paintings, sculpture and etc. During 19th and 20th century Is to appreciate and understand the importance of human being, his ideas and aspirations Other Related fields in Humanities

Anthropology History Literature Philosophy Religion Sociology Visual and Performing Arts

Art Etymology It came from the Latin word ars/artis which means to do or man made Definition It is a medium of expression because through arts we express our ideas, emotions, feelings, without using words. Creative activity which involves skill or expertness in handling materials and organizing them into a new.

Work of Art Definition A thing of beauty having aesthetic value. Obra maestra, provides aesthetic values to the viewers. It must have an artistic merit and literary merit. It is a symbolic state of meaning rather having a practical function. Example: Spolarium The Last Supper

Mona Lisa Madonna and child Banaue Rice Terraces Importance of Art Driven our existence Satisfies the needs for personal expression Develop our skills to express ourselves Challenge us to see things differently It unleash our hidden desires and passion

It can change our ways in life To see the truth that we might understand before It gives pleasure, satisfaction and gratification Functions of Art To express beauty It gives man moment of relaxation and spiritual happiness It serves as a channel of mans passion Arts reformed man Overcomes the feelings of restlessness and loneliness

Categories of work of art considered to be great Best selling - it is very popular in its day, or is produced by an artist who has done other very popular piece. Ground breaking- that it does not follow regular convention or already tried artistic methods real closely. It is not, in short, just

one more soap opera following an old, old formula, no matter how well done. Inherently beautiful - means just as the art critics do require and demand that a work of art have an inner harmony, beauty, and emotional/intuitive meaning that are unified, strong and intense, and deeply moving to us. Something that appeals to your senses and emotions.

Different classifications of Art I. By the Audience - focus on how audience classified arts 1. Performing Arts- something an artist used body as a medium. An art form that is moving from one place to another. Example: play, movies, live music, movies/TV, operas, mime, puppetry, acrobatic, dance, and ballet 2.

Visual Arts- usually exist in two dimensional form and stay in one place. Something that we see and hear. Example: painting, photography, drawing, films, sculpture, engraving, wooden materials, silk screen, cartoon, stained glass, mosaic, and stage setting. 3. Literature- talks about language that affects our imagination and make us think Example: non fiction, fiction, stage play, poetry, screenplay and song

4. Sculptural- a three dimensional form that we can touch, see, and climb. It stays in one place. Example: Monument, Architectural Designs, Rice terraces, Rock Garden, Eiffel Tower, Statue of Liberty, flower gardens, water fountain, and buildings. II. By Critics - Focus on how people judge art Major Arts or Fine Arts- those that includes music, literature,

sculpture, painting, dance, theater, photography, and architecture. 2. Minor Arts or Applied Arts- those that includes ceramics, furniture, weaving, photography, and letterings. a. Pure Art- created and performed for other sake and to satisfies the audience Example: Watching movie

b. Practical Art- with a purpose, for practical use that something is useful Example: Chair and Table III. By an Artist - Characterize by special sensing, physical and special senses 1. Sight art- something that you can see, imagine, and create Example: painting, drawing, mosaic, drafting design, stage

design, light displays and graphic design 2. Sound Art- something that you can hear Example: Literature, Poetry, plays and Music 3. Touch Art- something that you can feel or touch Example: Sculpture, Curving, Wood Craft, Pottery, Dance Movement, and building

IV. Other Classification 1. Real Art- something that is understandable what you see is what you get, objective and representational. Example: photography, stage play, dance, sculpture, and architecture 2. Abstract Art- non subject matter, non representational

that we cannot understand on the part of the listener. Example: Grey Tree by Piet Mondrian Elements of Art I. Color (Hue) - gives meaning, value, intensity and saturation to an object. It has series of wave lengths which strikes our retina. Example of Color and its meaning Color Black

Blue Brown Green Orange Pink Red Violet White Yellow Meaning -

Death, despair, gloom, sorrow, Infinity, Freedom, Calmness, Humility Nature, Freshness, Prosperity, Hope, Money Sweetness, Cheerfulness, Feminity, love, Bravery, Energy, Passion, War, Warm Royalty, Dull Purity, Clarity, Simplicity, Virginity, Peace Joyful, Life, Vibrant, Sunshine, Happiness

Properties of colors a. Value- lightness, brightness, darkness of color b. Saturation- degree of quality, purity, and strength such as scarlet and indigo. 2 to 3 colors in things. Classification of colors a.

Primary colors- colors that cannot be formed from mixtures because they are pure colors. Example: red, blue and yellow. b. Secondary colors- colors form out of combination of two primary colors. Example: Blue +

Yellow = Green Red + Blue = Violet Red + Yellow = Orange c.

Intermediate colors- colors form out of mixing one primary and one secondary. Example: Yellow Red Red d. + +

+ Green = Violet = Orange = Yellow green Red violet Red orange Tertiary colors- form out of combination of two secondary colors.

Example: Orange Orange Purple + + + purple = green = green =

russet citron olives II. Line - one or two dimensional art that indicates direction, orientation, movement, and energy. It is considered as the oldest, simplest, universal element. Direction of Line a. Vertical line- basic framework of all forms, power & delimination, strength, stability, simplicity, and efficiency.

b. Horizontal line- creates an impression of serenity and perfect stability. Rest, calmness, peace, and reposed. c. Diagonal line- it shows movement and instability. Portrays movement action. d. Jog line- it shows violence, zigzag, confusion, and conflict. e. Curve line- it shows a gradual change of direction and fluidity. It signifies subtle form. III. Medium - it denotes the means of artists to express his ideas, it pertains to materials used to express feelings through art.

IV. Rhythm- pattern, arrangement of lines, color, synchronization or connection of path that suggest gracefulness. V. Style- the typical expressing and training of artist and outlook in life. VI.

Structure- surface and quality of object either real or made to be appeared real. It gives variety and beauty on art. VI. Shape - the enclosed space defined by other elements of art. shapes may take on the appearance of two-d or three- objects. Principles of Art Emphasis the composition refers to developing points of interest to

pull the viewer's eye to important parts of the body of the work. Balance it is a sense of stability in the body of work. It can be created by repeating same shapes and by creating a feeling of equal weight. Harmony achieved in a body of work by using similar elements throughout the work, harmony gives an uncomplicated look to your work. Variety refers to the differences in the work, you can achieve variety by using difference shapes, textures, colors and values in your work. Movement adds excitement to your work by showing action and

directing the viewers eye throughout the picture plane. Rhythm a type of movement in drawing and painting. It is seen in repeating of shapes and colors. Alternating lights and darks also give a sense of rhythm. Proportion or scale refers to the relationships of the size of objects in a body of work. Proportions give a sense of size seen as a relationship of objects. such as smallness or largeness. Unity is seen in a painting or drawing when all the parts equal a whole. Your work should not appear disjointed or confusing. Different subject

of work of art 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nature

Woman Emotion Places Animals Events Saints 8. churches 9. Child 10. Fruits 11. Toys 12. Landscapes

13. Seascapes 14. Religion Different ways of presenting the subject 1. Realism - the artists portrays the subject as ease. Example: Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet by Gustave Courbet in 1854 2. Abstraction - there is no subject but only his feelings and ideas. You cannot figure out the subject/object. Example: Figura by Arturo Luz

3. Distortion - usually done to dramatize the shape of a figure or to create an emotional effect. Measurement is not proportioned. Example: Caricature Artist and His Medium - As the materials, the artist way of expressing his emotion in

order to communicate his ideas. 1. Visual - that can be seen and can occupy space. Example: painting and drawing 2 Auditory/time - that can be heard. Example: music and literature - That can be seen and heard. Example: opera, dance, drama and movies Artist and His Technique How to control his medium to achieve his desire in the work of art. It also pertains to technical requirement of the particular work of

art. It is how he manipulates his medium Painting definition The practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). In art, the term describes both the act and the result, which is called a painting. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay or concrete. Paintings may be decorated with gold leaf, and some modern paintings incorporate other materials including sand, clay, and

scraps of paper. Tangible canvass that we see through the use of his hands. It is the most widely practiced and appreciated. Example: canvass, paper, wood, plaster History of Painting It is originated in France and was introduced in the Philippines by the Spaniards during 17th century. The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures, that represent a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, and spanning continents and

millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity that continues into the 21st century. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, viceversa.

The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old. [1]There are examples of cave paintings all over the worldin France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, India etc.

In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting are the best known media, with rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions. Filipino Painters Juan Lunas famous works include the The Death of Cleopatra, which won him a silver medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts (1881) and The Spolarium, his greatest masterpiece that won him a gold medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts

held in Madrid in 1884. The Battle of Lepanto won him another gold medal at the Barcelona Exposition in 1888. Among his last painting include El Pacto de Sangre which won first prize in Paris and at the St. Louis Exposition, USA in 1904. Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo's place in Philippine Art was secured in the last quarter of the nineteenth century through his large Neoclassical canvases which harvested Gold and Silver Medals in prestigious International Exhibitions. At a time when merely to have one's painting accepted and hung in the highly competitive International Exhibits was a mark of having arrived as a painter, Hidalgo's entries stood out

among thousands of paintings (representing in these Exhibits the best Europe and America had to offer) to win distinction: a Gold Medal for his major work, La Barca de Aqueronte and Silver Medals for two others (Jovenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho and Adios del Sol). It is therefore through these two historical paintings in the grand manner" (a seascape with figure, Adios del Sol is a departure from the traditional manner) that Hidalgo's reputation as a painter is assured in both Philippine Art history and the popular mind. He is the painter of Assassination of Gov. Gen. Fernando Bustamante.

Purposes of Painting 1. Painting commemorates historical events. 2. For recognition of religious activities. Elements of Painting Line it is a mans own invention; extension of a point. Vertical lines power, stability, strength Horizontal lines relaxation, calmness, at peace, laziness

Diagonal lines movement Curve lines graceful movements, fluidity, flexibility Shape it is an area of flat surface enclosed by a line. Texture it refers to the feel or tactile quality of a surface of an object; the roughness or smoothness of an object. Size it is smallness or largeness of an object. Color it a series of wave lengths which strike our retina. Spectrum consists of different colors: red, orange, blue, indigo and violet. Paints

Paints are composed of three materials: Pigment Binder Solvent Paints Pigment: natural or synthetic colored materials finely ground into power clay, gemstones, minerals, plants and insects.

Paints Binder: holds the pigment together and adheres the paint to a surface, egg yolks, oil and wax. Paints Solvent: can be added to thin or thicken paint, slow or speed up its drying time with oil or water. Painting Styles Fresco mixing pigments with plaster (walls, ceilings) Buon true Fresco: paint is bound in the wet plaster Fresco secco: paint is applied to dry plaster. Tempera water based, egg binder, used prior to 1400s, colors cannot be mixed, narrow range, fast-drying Oil easily mixed, more permanent, used after

1400, slow-drying. painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil. It had a glossy and varnish-like effect. MURAL PAINTING involved blowing colored pigments through tubes onto the canvas or walls. PAINTING MEDIA DRY MEDIA PENCIL cheap, easily available, easy to

work with and can be erased. Graphite pencils or lead pencils have probably made more drawings than any other medium. PENCILS METALPOINT A metal point drawing is made by dragging a metal stylus over the surface of a prepared paper, leaving a mark much like a graphite pencil.

Many metals such as copper, brass, silver, gold and platinum can be used to create a metal point drawing, each having unique characteristics. Metal point drawings are labor intensive and require great patience . METALPOINT PENS CHARCOAL Dark, soft and harsh lines. They are burned sticks of wood . It is used greatly for sketches and portraits.

CHALK AND CRAYON The main difference between them is the BINDER ( the substance that holds the pigment together). Chalk have nonfat binders while crayons have greasy or oily, fat and wax binders. PASTEL is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. Pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures.

LIQUID MEDIA PEN AND INK Uses pens and ink to create uninterrupted lines. A major variable in ink drawings is the thickness or thinness of lines. BRUSH AND INK When ink is diluted in water and applied with a brush, the result is called a WASH. ENCAUSTIC Also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored

pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surfaceusually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. Wax gives a clear luminous/shining effect. OIL Painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil. Use of oil started with 15th century

Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. The presence of oil makes the painting shiny and varnished. It dries slowly. GOUACHE Also known as water paint, splash or body color. Gouache is a water based paint consisting of pigment to be used in an opaque/cloudy painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher . This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities.

WATERCOLOR - paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include fabric/cloth, wood, and canvas. SYNTHETIC MEDIA WATER-BASED ACRYLICS most popular synthetic paint introduced in 1950s. Quick-drying and intense colors.

THINNED DOWN ACRYLICS synthetic paints that are shot through airbrushes and spray paint containers. Different Techniques Ability which artist fulfill his work of art and manipulates ideas. 1. Realism - introduced by a French man named Gustave Courbet in 19th century. Adopted to describe things represent figures and exactly how they look like in real life. Example: sunset, sunrise, and nature

sunset sunrise nature 2. Surealism - invented from the word super naturalism. It is used to emphasize the unconscious creative activity of the mind. Example: dream

dejavu 3. Cubism - initiated by Cezanne, the father of cubism. It shows the flatness of the picture and rejects traditional perspectives. Example: Demoiselles d Avignon in 1907 by Pablo Picasso 4. Expressionism - tries to express subjective feelings and emotions of the artists. It is how the artist feels about the subject. Example: The Scream by Edvard Munch in 1892 5. Impressionism - the artist depicts what stimulates the eye. What

we see is important in an impressionist. When they create an art they are more concerned with the effects of lights that would get the attention of the audience. Example: Soleil Levant (Impression, sunrise) by Claude Monet in 1872 6. Symbolism - the visible sign of something invisible such as ideas or quality. Something that you can create in the mind such as ideas that can be depicted through painting. Example: La mort du fossoyeur ("The death of the gravedigger")

by Carlos Schwabe 7. Pointillism - a style of painting in which the artists use small distinct dots of color forming a figure and it has an item of luminosity and create the impression of a wide selection of other colors and blending. Example: La Parade de Cirqu by Seurat (1889) 8. Futurism - an art movement that originated in Italy in the early

20th century. Machine and motions is the main subject of this technique which try to show movement and speed. Rejected the traditional perspectives and attempted to glorify a new life. Example: The City Rises by Umberto Boccioni (1910) 9. Minimalism - the form is reduced to outmost simplicity geometrical shape which emphasizes space. Example: The reconstruction of German Pavillion in Barcelona, Spain 10. Fauvism - the painter try to paint picture by using bright and extreme colors in order to assume positive characters.

Example: The portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line) by Henry Matisse in 1905 11. Dadaism - a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. It shows a movement that shock and provokes the viewers. Example: Hitler in Hell by George Grosz 12.Constructivism - derived from the word construction. Construction of abstract pictures such

as metal and wire. Example: Model of the Monument to the Third International by Tatlin Tower. SCULPTURE Etymology The term of " sculpture" comes from Latin word " sculpere" which means to cut or remove pieces with a stone. Definition

It is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard and/or plastic material, sound, and/or text and or light, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass, or wood. Aesthetic art of modeling shaping single block or mash materials into a 3 dimensional form out of rock, wood, and metal. Example: Statue of David and U.P Oblation Statue of David

U.P Oblation History The sculpture prowess of the Philippines occurred during Spanish regime. The sculpture started when people begun to worship statues anino. People began to do something on clays, loams then it evolves through technology. It is often use to form religious item like catholic saints. It is known to be the oldest art form.

It varied and is illustrative of how sculpture has changed extensively over the ages. The art of sculpture continues as a vital art form worldwide. From pre-historic and ancient civilizations to the contemporary, from the utilitarian and religious to modernist abstraction, and conceptual manifestations of both form and content, a continuous stream of creativity & an extremely modest show of compassion.

Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an expression of religion or politics. Historical Background of Sculpture Pre-Historic Sculpture The primitive people produced the so called fertility statues. It has been described as giving emphasis on the

female sexual attributes. It emphasizes the womens wide hips and opulent breasts. Primitive men made this for fear of extinction and it will remind them to go on and on to produce more offspring. Egyptian Sculpture The sphinx is the most popular piece in Egypt. It is a huge sculpture which is described as the human head with a body of a croaching lion.

The head of the Sphinx is symbolic of the pharaoh, the mighty reler of Egypt, and the body of the croaching lion is symbolic of the mighty country Egypt. Therefore it symbolizes the mighty strengths and protective power of Egypt. Greek Sculpture the Golden Age of Athens was the complete fulfillment of the term classic for it was the culmination of the ideals of the time and of the ancient world as well. It falls into four classes:

Sculptures created without regard to their ultimate location or method of display. Free standing. Free standing sculpture ,that is surrounded on all sides by space, except the base. Statues identified as kore otherwise known as female standing sculpture. Statues identified as kouros otherwise known a male standing sculpture. Sculptures designed as ornaments for specific positions. Roman Sculpture

Given the Etruscan descendant of naturalism, Roman portraiture set an early standard of excellence that became the model for the whole Western tradition. It falls into two classes: portraits and historical relief. Both reflect the highly developed Roman taste of realism. Baroque Sculpture A restless, dynamic style with its diagonals and floating curved lines, and its

sensuous textural effects. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the Baroque artist par excellence. His known sculpture is the Ecstasy of St. Therese. Ecstasy of St. Therese Byzantine Sculpture Sculptured relief during the Byzantine was used to adorn magnificent palaces and churches.

It is the richest expression of Christian doctrine. Renaissance Sculpture It showed some traces of classical influence in the pulpits of the Cathedrals of Pisa and Sienna. The great master of this period is Michaelangelo. His masterpiece was the Pieta today a treasure of St. Peters in Rome.

Pieta Materials in Sculpture Elements of Sculpture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Plastic Aluminum Bronze

Rock Wood Metal Form Color Line Volume Perspective Texture Style

Types of Sculpture Some common forms of sculpture are: 1. Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is surrounded on all sides by space, except the base. It is also known as sculpture "in the round", and is meant to be viewed from any angle. 2. Sound sculpture - Sound sculpture (related to sound art and sound installation) is an intermedia and time based art form in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces sound, or the reverse (in the sense that sound is manipulated in such a way as

to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal form or mass). 3. Light sculpture - is an intermedia and time based art form in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces light, or the reverse (in the sense that light is manipulated in such a way as to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal form or mass). 4. Jewelry objects of personal adornment made of precious metals, gems, or imitation materials.

5. Relief - the sculpture is still attached to a background; types are bas-relief, alto-relievo, and sunken-relief. 6. Site-specific art - is artwork created to exist in a certain place. 7. Kinetic sculpture - involves aspects of physical motion. 8. Statue - representation list sculpture depicting a specific entity, usually a person, event, animal or

object a. Bust - representation of a person from the chest up b. Equestrian statue - typically showing a significant person on horseback 9. Stacked art - a form of sculpture formed by assembling objects and 'stacking' them. 10. Architectural sculpture - Architectural

sculpture is the term for the use of sculpture by an architect and/or sculptor in the design of a building, bridge, mausoleum or other such project. Function Sculpture functions as an integral part of many ceremonies and events. Often unnoticed, it gives us a visual reference for our emotional experiences throughout the passages of life. Tombstones, for example, are a form of sculpture commemorating death, a universal event.

Processes and Techniques Processes in sculpting vary, and always depend on the materials used. There is cast sculpture, where a material, such as bronze, begins as a clay form that is cast in a mould to produce a given shape; there is also carved sculpture, such as wood or stone. Two distinct methods have emerged; an additive process, where material is added again and again to build up the form, for example with clay, and the subtractive process, where the artist removes or subtracts materials to create the form, as in marble or stone carving . Sculpture may be free standing (sometimes referred to as

sculpture in the round even if it is a square shape), often on a pedestal or base where you can walk around it, or relief, where raised forms project from a background or surface. There is low relief, where the figure emerges at a level closer to the surface; and high relief, where the figure may almost be completely detached from the surface or ground. Types of representation and composition in relief are defined by their need for the ground plane on which the forms are superimposed or from which they emerge. Relief can be carved in wood or stone; molded

in clay or wax; cast in metal, plaster or resin. Music Etymology The word music comes from the Greek mousik (tekhn) by way of the Latin musica. It is ultimately derived from mousa, the Greek word for muse. Definition Consist of sounds and silences in such a manner as to convey emotions and feelings of the composer.

Combination of melodious tones, and sounds of varying pitch to produce harmony. Function of Music 1. Religious and ceremonial purpose 2. Release the tensions and emotion

3. To listen to music intelligently 4. Therapeutic value 5. For entertainment

6. Experience reflect music 7. Learning is made easy to music Properties of Music 1. 2. 3.

4. Pitch - highness and lowness of tone. Duration - the length of time over which vibration is maintained. Volume - loudness and softness of voice. Timber/tone color - distinctive or individual quality of the sound. Elements of Music 1. 2. Rhythm - the over all movement or swing of music, slow or fast

movements. Melody - emotional motions, sometimes called the memory element of music. It is what the listener remembers. 3. 4. 5. Harmony - it is the combination of different tones and blending of voice. Dynamics - the softness and loudness of voice. It is the force of music.

Style - the result of restraining, temperament. Singers way of doing his music. Different Mediums of Music I. Vocal medium refers to human voice. Vocal classes a. Soprano - highest register of voice for female Example: Sylvia dela Torre and Armida Siguion-Reyna, (coloratura soprano) Charlotte Church b.

Mezzo soprano - medium register of voice for female Example: Betty Allen (america) and Lea Salonga c. Alto - lowest register of voice for female Example: Claire dela Fuente and Isay Alvarez d. Tenor - highest register of voice for male Example: Luciano Pavarotti was (this century's most famous

tenor) Carreras, Pavorotti, Placido Domingo, and Eric Caruso e. Baritone - medium register of voice for male Example: Nonoy Zuiga f. Bass - lowest register of voice for male Example: Tim Riley (performed in Gold City Quartet)

Solo - singing without accompaniment Duet - a group of two singers or a composition of two voices Acappella- is an all-male Contemporary Christian vocal group founded in 1982 by Keith Lancaster, who has variously played the role of singer, songwriter and producer throughout the group's history. Chorus or choir - a musical ensemble of singers.

Choir/chorus - a body of singers who perform together. Often applied to groups affiliated with a church. Quartet - a method of instrumentation (or a medium), used to perform a musical composition, and consisting of four parts. II. Instrumental medium - with the use of musical instruments. 1. Strings - They consist of the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. They all have the same basic shape, but are very different in size. They each have four strings, are made of wood, and are played by drawing a bow across the strings or plucking the

strings with the fingers. 2. Brass - instruments are the loudest members of the orchestra. They include French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba. Brass instruments are long tubes of metal which the player blows into through a mouth-piece at one end. The player makes a buzzing sound with his or her lips, and the sound comes out the other end which is wider, like a bell. 3.

Woodwinds - instruments are most commonly made of wood or metal, and are played by blowing air across an opening at one end or through a "reed", and by covering and uncovering holes along the instrument with fingers or levers, keys, and pads. The members of this family are flute and piccolo, oboe and English horn, clarinet and bass clarinet, and bassoon and contra-bassoon. 4. Percussion - instruments are the rhythm section of the orchestra. They make sounds when they are struck, scraped, or rattled with

hands or special sticks. Some percussion instruments have a definite highness or lowness, a quality called pitch, and some do not have a definite pitch. Xylophone, timpani, chimes, vibraphone, and Celesta are examples of pitched percussion instruments, while bass drum, snare drum, triangle, cymbals, and tambourine are non-pitched percussion instruments. Kinds of Music 1. Program music - any music which is connected on poem or story more on literature.

Example: An Alpine Symphony by Richard Strauss 2. Folk music - tradition music of people, race, generation which is past from one generation to another generation. Example: Tinikling, Singkil, Itik-Itik 3. Art music - normally accompanied by piano. The most sophisticated of all.

Example: Serenade by Franz Schubert 4. Jazz music - more on trumphets, violin, clarinet, trombone, drums, and saxophone. Example: Careless Whisper and Somewhere Over the Rainbow 5. Classical music - depicts love Example: Oh ilaw, hating gabe, nasan ka irog 6. Opera - combination of song, dance, acting, ballet,

Broadway Example: Miss Saigon, Chicago, les miserables, New York Composer - a person who create musical or literary work Best Composers Vennie Saturno Ogie Alcasid Danny Tan Lito Camo Ryan Cayabyab Jose Marie Chan

Louie Ocampo George Canseco = = = = = = = =

Be my Lady Kung mawawala ka Close to where you are Para Sayo Kailangan Kita Christmas in our hearts Say that you love me Kastilyong Buhangin Dance Etymology

The word Dance comes from an old German word, Danson, which means to stretch. Definition - a sport and art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. -

It is an art performed by individuals or groups of human beings, existing in time and space, in which the human body is the instrument and movement is the medium - Rhythmic movement of the body to create emotions with music - Succession or arrangement of steps performed for purposes such as rituals or expression of inner thoughts

History Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony, rituals, celebrations and entertainment since before the birth of the earliest human civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from circa 3300 BC.Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture. One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been

in the performance and in the telling of myths. It was also sometimes used to show feelings for one of the opposite gender. It is also linked to the origin of "love making." Before the production of written languages, dance was one of the methods of passing these stories down from generation to generation. Elements of Dance 1. Choreography - creation of steps with music and movement with a rhythm of music

2. Costumes- the style of dress that a dancer wears. It depends upon the color 3. Dancer - a person who perform synchronize movement. usually employed on contract or for particular performances/productions such as Anna Pavlova Patrick Swayze Rudolf Nureyev.

4. Decoration - it pertains to props, design and accessories. 5. Movement - the action of the dancer as they move to create various and to communicate with audience 6. Music - the mood and the plan based on the music

7. Technique - control of the muscles over the body 8. Theme - it is actually the main content of the dance. It tells us what the dance is trying to convey Choreographer - Choreographers are generally university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific

dance company. Joy Cancho, Geleen Eugenio, Leonides D. Arpon, Gerald Casel, and Max Luna III Filipino DIFFERENT KINDS OF DANCES 1. Folk Dance - it pertains to traditional dance Example: Tinikling, Cariosa, 2. Social Dance - it is a kind of dance that we perform in small gatherings Example: Ballroom Dance, Cha Cha, Rumba, Waltz, and Sway 3. Modern Dance - based on the natural expressive movements by which means the dancer expresses a wide range of emotions Example: Solo, Group Dance, and Interpretative Dance

4. Ethnic Dance - used to perform their rituals Example: Pagdiwata of the Tagbanwa of Palawan 5. Indian Dance - highly exaggerated facial expression and extensive vocabulary of hand gestures Example: Kathakali, Bhangra, and Punjab 6. Ballet - a stage entertainment which enacts a story of expresses a dramatic idea through dance or theatrical story telling. It is a combined with music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and dance. Example: The Swan 7. Court Dance - a street dance. Example: Panagbenga and Ati-atihan

8. Theatrical Dance - perform in order to convey drama or play. Example: Opera, Myme, and Classical dance Photography Etymology The word "photography" comes from the Greek (phos) "light" + (graphis) "stylus", "paintbrush" or (graph) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light." Traditionally, the products of photography have been called negatives and photographs, commonly shortened to photos.

Definition - It is the art or process of producing images through the use of a light sensitive chemical or film. - A photography is an actual likeness, that production of which may not actually involve artists creativity. One only has to press a button on a camera to produce this actual likeness. History Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Chinese philosopher Mo Ti described a pinhole camera in the 5th century B.C.E. Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with

the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photograph was an image produced in 1825 by the French inventor Nicphore Nipce. However, because his photographs took so long to expose, he sought to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Nipce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long

enough to be captured by the long exposure Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula, in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did in 1839. Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process so that portraits were made readily available to the masses. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process, which creates negative images. John Herschel made many contributions

to the new methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839. In March 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate collodion process. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1880s when the dry plate was introduced. There are three subsets to the Collodion

process; the Ambrotype (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper. Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today. In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate in Physics for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, also known as the Lippmann plate.

Modes of production Amateurism An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby and not for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable or superior to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in its choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward. Commerce Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light money

could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. The commercial photographic world could includes: Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as pack shots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an inhouse corporate design team. Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in glamour photography may be nude, but this is not always the case.

Crime Scene Photography: This type of photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details. Still life photography: it depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Food photography: it can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills. Editorial photography: photographs made to illustrate a story or idea

within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine. Photojournalism: this can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story. Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images. Landscape photography: photographs of different locations. Wildlife photography: it demonstrates life of the animals. Photo sharing: publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online.

Steps in Photography Choosing the subject- requires the wise judgment and artistic sense of the photographer. Mechanical one- a light sensitized film contained in a darken box is exposed to the light from the object being photographed. Chemical one- after the film has been exposed, it is treated with a series of chemical solutions to develop the film and produce a permanent negative. A photographic paint is produced from the negative. Example of Photographs :

Life photography by Kas Chan on may 26 2009 Colours of life Journey by Ferne Merrylees Journey of life Award Giving Body Camera club of the Philippines

Best Photographers for 2007 - Federico M. Ortiz - Master Photographer Philip Clayton S. Yu - 2nd Place Raphael L. Santos - 3rd Place Gerardo M. Sabado - 4th Place Francisco G. Balagtas - 5th Place Norlito S. Quimel - 6th Place Rodolfo M. de Leon - 7th Place E. Billy B. Mondonedo - 8th Place Leonardo A. Riingen - 9th Place

Raoul E. Littaua - 10th Place CINEMA Etymology Derived from the Greek word kineo (to stir literally or figuratively; to stir (transitively), literally or figuratively) Definition - It is a term that embraces many types of film or movies: cartoons, newsreels, commercials, industrial film, educational films, social documentaries, and even home movies.

- It is an act of presentation in lights made picture possible to appear in a two dimensional surface - It is combination of frames and lights - It is a way of expressing ideas, attitudes, feelings, dreams, and fantasies to an audience through series of lights and images. History It was the time of Shakespeare when drama became modern of play. The play came from Shakespeare story. It was Thomas Edison who made cinema possible through his invention called optic lights which gives rise to motion pictures. We cannot imagine life without

cinema because through this we appreciate the past. Elements of Cinema 1. Music - a movie is being remembered by its music and it is usually came out during the climax of the story 2. Characters - those who act to portray the role of the story that is being presented

3. Directors - the one who do and undo the film; regarded as the captain of the ship 4. Script - the subject of the film. It is the story itself 5. Cinematography - anything you see in the screen it is the picture in motion that you see in the cinema. 6. Camera shots - gives the definite point of view, the focus, the angles, and the movement 7. Value - to make a man a better person, cultured, and refined Different Kinds of Film 1.

Action - a movie with a lot of exciting effects like car chases and gun fights, involving stuntmen. They usually involve 'goodies' and 'baddies', so war and crime are common subjects. Action films usually need very little effort to watch, since the plot is normally simple Example: Die hard, Saving Private Ryan, Quantum of Solace, Rambo, Isang Bala ka lang, Batas ng lansangan, and Anak ni Baby Ama. 2.

Comedy - are funny movies about people being silly or doing unusual things that make the audience laugh. Example: Bruce Almighty, Click, The Love Guru, You Don't Mess with the Zohan, Pedro Penduko, and Skul Bukol 3. Horror - films use fear to excite the audience. Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in film studios where the film is made) are all designed to add to the feeling. Example: The Ring, The grudge, Shutter, Ouija Board, Halimaw

sa Banga, and Feng shui 4. Drama - are serious and often about people falling in love or people who have to make a big decision in their life. They tell stories about relationships between people. They usually follow a basic plot where one or two main characters (each actor plays a character) have to 'overcome' (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them) to get what they want. Example: A Walk to Remember, Hwang Jini, Mila, Abakada Ina, and Bata Bata Pano ka ginawa?

5. Documentary - present a fact without bias judgment and comment. Movies that are about real people and real events. They are nearly always serious and may involve strongly emotional subjects. Example: Batang Kalabaw, Nanay na si Nene, 6. Animated - movies use childish images like talking pigs to tell a story. These films used to be drawn by hand, one frame at a time,

but are now made on computers. Example: Babes, Cats and Dogs, Ice Age, Fantasia, Kung Fu Panda, Bolt, Mulan, and Prinsesa Urduja 7. Fantasy - a movie of daydream or illusion Example: Peter Pan, Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings, Darna, Captain Barbel, and Lastikman 8. Thrillers/Suspense - are usually about a mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be solved. The audience is kept guessing until

the final minutes, when there are usually 'twists' in the plot (surprises). Example: Da Vinci code, Angels and Demons, Sigaw, and Patayin sa Sindak si Barbara 9. Romance - are usually love stories about 2 people from different worlds, who must overcome obstacles to be together. It is always light-hearted, but may include some emotion. Example: Titanic, Twilight, Slumdog Millionaire, One More Chance, The Promise, and I Will Always Love You 10. Buddy - movies involve 2 heroes, one must save the other, both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often involve comedy, but there is also some emotion, because

of the close friendship between the 'buddies'. Example: Shanghai Nights, Forbidden Kingdom, Shaolin Kid, and Buddy and Sol AWARD GIVING BODIES IN THE PHILIPPINES - These are institutions, academies and fellowships that are handing out awards, citations and recognitions to outstanding film achievements for a certain calendar year. FAMAS - Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences FAP - Film Academy of the Philippines MMFF - Metro Manila Film Festival

Gawad Urian- Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino Star Awards for Movies (Philippine Movie Press Club) Catholic Mass Media Awards (Archdiocese of Manila) Gawad Pasado (Film Desk Critics' Circle) Golden Screen Awards (Entertainment Press Society) UP Young Critics Circle Awards Cinemalaya Independent Film Festival ACADEMY OF MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND SCIENCES (AMPAS) Oscars Awards

Grammy Awards Nickelodeons Kids Choice Awards Golden Globe Awards Emmy Awards Glossary Acrylic - synthetic material made from acrylic acid

Art critics - people who are expert in a work of art Artistic Merit - quality of the work of art that people can

attach to that work of art Fresco - painting done in watercolor on a wall or ceiling before the plaster is dry Human Being -

highest form of creation Last song syndrome - mental motion that associated with Literary Merit -

it is actually applied to the general fiction characteristics against law. It is not precise but it depends on judgment of the people. Pastel - crayon of powdered pigment bound with a gum solution

Tempera - method of painting using an emulsion, example of pigment with egg yolk and water Bibliography Humanities notes of Mary Estelita Landicho, Rachelle Prado, R-jay Moreno, Bernadette dela Cruz, Mary Ann Carpio Art: Perception and Appreciation by Ma A. Ortiz

MAPEH-CAT IV by Vilma Perez Oxford- Dictionary of Current English Merriam Webster Dictionary In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements in

Webpage Development Submitted by: Mary Estelita D Landicho Rachelle T. Prado Boa iv-i Thank you!

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