Introduction to MLA Format Reference Department at ULM Library Session Overview What is MLA Format? Why Do We Use MLA? General Guidelines Quotes/Paraphrasing
In-Text Citations Works Cited Resources Any Questions? What is MLA Format? MLA Format is a system of documenting sources that was authored by the Modern Language Association This
format is used for documenting sources in disciplines such as English and the Humanities Why Do We Use MLA? Academic writers write for their peers and write in academic journals, books, novels, etc MLA allows you as a writer to give credit to authors for using their work or ideas in your research paper We also use MLA so when we document these sources in our research papers, the sources will be formatted in a standardized way So You Will Use It To.
Format your paper, including Margins Spacing Font selection and size Headers/footers Guide the style of your paper, including Quotations In-text Voice citations General Guidelines
1 inch margin on all pages Double Use Use space each line 12 point for the font size a professional font type such as Times New Roman and be consistent General Guidelines Page headers Include page numbers and authors name May be omitted from first page Only
one space following ending punctuation of sentences Indent first sentence of paragraphs inch from margin MLA recommends simply using the Tab key (versus spacing over manually) Use an active voice whenever possible General Guidelines MLA papers dont typically need cover pages so unless your professor asks for one, its not necessary to create one MLA papers do need a heading in which you
list your name, your professors name, the class, and the date this is typically doublespaced Guidelines First Page Format your papers Guidelines First Page Examples of titles within titles: The Function of Time in Woolfs To the Lighthouse Sexuality in Faulkners A Rose for Emily Race and Race Relations in Barakas Dutchman Quotations/Paraphrasing
When youre writing a research paper, youre going to have to work other peoples research into your own, in order to: Demonstrate the validity of your point of view Inform your audience of what research has been done on the topic Show your audience how your point of view fits into whats been done Quotations/Paraphrasing There are two ways of incorporating information into your paper quoting and paraphrasing
MLA has guidelines for how to use quotations and paraphrasing in your writing Its important to understand how these two methods differ Quotations Quotations are the actual words taken from the text, word for word, as they appear in the text itself Quotations can be high impact the words of an expert that support your argument carry a lot of weight Quotations and Quoting
But including too many quotations is lazy; youre letting the research do all of the work Sometimes too many quotations looks like plagiarism youre using someone elses ideas as your arguments, rather than as support *You* are supposed to be doing the work; quotations are just tools with which to do the work Quotations and Quoting There are two ways to quote:
1st way- Direct Quotations use the authors name as part of the sentence. Examples: Dickens said, it was the best of times, it was the worst of times. According to Dickens, it was the best of times, it was the worst of times. Quotations and Quoting Direction quotations do not allow for change a direct quotation is, word for word, identical to the way it appears in the original text
The original text MUST HAVE QUOTATION MARKS around it Examples: Dickens said, it was the best of times, it was the worst of times (62). According to Dickens, it was the best of times, it was the worst of times The(62). quotation marks show where the authors words begin and end, distinguishing them from YOUR writing.
Quotes and Quotations 2nd way: indirect quotations - DO NOT include the author or authors names in the sentence But you still have to use quotation marks, and you cant make changes to the text Not the authors name Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo 62). So its got to be here Paraphrasing A second way you can incorporate information into your writing is to paraphrase
Paraphrasing is the act of taking information from a text and either Summarizing it taking a whole paragraphs worth of information and boiling it down to a few sentences, or Rewording it - demonstrating your understanding of the information by putting it into your own words, in such a way that is significantly different from the original text Paraphasing Summary The paragraph youre about to see is very long, too long to quote effectively
One of your options is to summarize the paragraph in your own words, reducing and simplifying Remember, though, youll still have to do an in-text citation (more on that in a minute) Summaries do not require quotation marks Paraphrasing Summary ORIGINAL TEXT TOO LONG TO QUOTE Children are totally insensitive to their parents' SUMMARY TEXT a parent EASIERshy shyness; it is the OF rareORIGINAL child who labels
TO USE [...] This is understandable, since parents are in positions of control and authority in their homes and Because parents figures in theAlso, may not reveal their are shyauthority side to their children. home, children are not aware of since shyness is viewed asimmediately
undesirable by many their parents shyness; it may tooof scary for in children, it may be threatening to be think parents theterms. children think of their in is still these At to this young
age, parents the parent negative terms. idealized as all-knowing and all-powerful - - not dumb, ugly, or weak. Zimbardo, Philip G. Shyness: What It Is, What to Do Paraphrasing: Rewording If you arent concerned with the length of a section, or you feel you cant boil the information down without losing something important, you have the option of putting the information in your own words Make sure the info really is in your own words if its too close to the original text, it could be
considered plagiarism Paraphrasing: Rewording The result of paraphrasing a paragraph may produce a paragraph of equal length, and thats okay Whats important is that the information is actually in your own words and That you give credit where credit is due Lets take a look at an example of rewording paraphrasing, shall we? Paraphrasing: Rewording
ORIGINAL TEXT, AS IS REWORDED/PARAPHRASE Children are totally insensitive to perceived their parents' A parents shyness is not often by ashyness; it is the rare child who labels a parent shya[...] This as is child, and rarely
would a child describe parent understandable, sinceparents parentsare areauthority in positions of control being shy. Because figures in and authority in their homes and may not reveal the home, that shyness
may not manifest, nor their shy side to parent their children. sinceinshyness viewed may the behave Also, bashfully front of is the aschild. undesirable by many children, it valued may beinthreatening Moreover,
shyness is often a to negative think of parents terms. At think this young fashion in bythese children, so to of a age, the parent is in still idealized all-knowing and to all-powerful -parent this fashionas
can be unsettling the not dumb, weak. the parent at this stage of child. Theugly, childoridolizes development. Zimbardo, Philip G. Shyness: What It Is, What to Do About It. Perseus Books, 1977. Quoting versus Paraphrasing: Both of these methods of using resources in your When? writing have many benefits so how do you decide when to use which?
Remember: quoting is usually high impact its good for emphasis, when you think taking the words out of the horses mouth is the best means of persuasion Quoting is like a punch: your opponent CANNOT ignore it! Quoting versus Paraphrasing: When? Paraphrasing is better for condensing a lot of information into a more manageable amount (like we saw in the summary example) Its also very useful when the information is very technical or the authors style is very dry and inaccessible you can make the info more easy to consume for your audience
You can also combine authors ideas that are similar into one passage through paraphrasing Paraphrasing: More on Combining Ideas Lets say you have two authors who say similar things on a topic. Zimbardo writes: Children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness. Smith writes: Children are usually unaware when their parents are shy. Paraphrasing: More on Combining Ideas These two passages of information can be blended together (mmmm.info smoothie) to keep your information concise and to prevent unnecessary repetition. So, a paraphrase of their information blended together would look like this: Some researchers note that children are often
ignorant with regard to their parents shyness (Zimbardo 62; Smith 45). Incorporating Info Into Your Own Writing Its NOT recommended that you just put quotations in your writing without some kind of preamble or introduction or explanation A good rule of thumb is that every sentence in your writing should contain something you wrote, no matter what Transitions are important, particularly between your writing and thoughts, and the quotations Incorporating Quotations into Your
Writing And its not necessary for every quotation to end the sentence lets look at the variants on the Zimbardo quotations again. Zimbardo notes that children are totally insensitive to their parents shyness (62), though some authors disagree. Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo 62), but other authors disagree. In-text Citations When using someone elses work in your own whether youre quoting or paraphrasing youll need to give credit where credit is due, or document what isnt your work This is where in-text citations come in
youve seen a few already, but well look at them more closely now In-text Citations These are used to cite resources within the text Every in-text citation should have a corresponding citation in the Works Cited section If you quote something directly from a text, then the citation will include the author or authors names and page number In-text Citations Direct quotation, author named in sentence
According to Jones, "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (199). In-text Citations, Continued Direct quotation, author not named in sentence According to some researchers, "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (Jones 199). Please note: the period doesnt come until AFTER the in-text citation. The sentence isnt complete until the citation is complete. In-text Citations, Continued
Long quotations (more than four lines) should be set apart (that is, not within the text, but in a block quotation) Omit quotation marks Indent 1 inch (2 hits to the Tab key) from margin Maintain double spacing Same rules apply for in-text citation, EXCEPT that the quotation will end with its punctuation, then followed by the citation In-text Citations, Continued
Long direct quotation One study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing This difficulty could be attributed to the sources. fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask In-text Citations, Continued Even if youre paraphrasing something, youll still need to identify the original source In-text citations work for paraphrasing, too
The in-text citations will include the authors name and page numbers, if available; remember, if the author is unknown, use an abbreviated version of the title In-text Citations, Continued Paraphrasing in-text citations According to Jones, APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (199). APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones199). MLA uses an author-page format in in-text citations (MLA In-Text Citations). Works Cited The Works Cited page lists the resources you used in your paper this is where you document those sources
Remember: if you have an in-text citation, you will have a corresponding bibliographic citation in your references References are double-spaced, too Works Cited, Continued On the Works Cited page: center the title Works Cited (without quotation marks) at the top of the page All lines following the first line of the citation will be indented a one half-inch from the margin (also known as a hanging indent)
Italicize titles of long works, like books or journal titles Put quotation marks around the titles of short works, like essays or articles Works Cited, Continued Author names are inverted; that is, last name first In resources with more than one author, all other authors names are first name first, last name last
If a source does not have an author, it will be alphabetized based on title Works Cited, Continued The core elements of any works cited entry are given below in the order in which they should appear; Not all entries will have all of these 1. Author. 2. Title of source. 3. Title of container,
9. Location. Works Cited, How to Cite Authors The authors name is usually displayed in a work near the title Begin the entry with the authors last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the authors name End this element with a period Examples:
Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011. Doris, Michael, and Louise Erdich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999. Burdick, Anne, et. al. Digital Humanities. MIT P, 2012. Works Cited, How to Cite Titles of Sources After the author, the next element included in a works cited entry is the title of the source
The title is often displayed in a work near the author Italicize larger works like books and collections of essays or poems Example: Puig, Manuel. Kiss of the Spider Woman. Translated by Thomas Colchie, Vintage Books, 1991. Put quotation marks around shorter works such as titles of article names, essays, stories, or poems Example:
Goldman, Anne. Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante. The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. Works Cited, How to Cite Titles of Container When the source being documented forms a part of a larger whole, (like a book that is a collection of essays) the larger whole can be thought of as a container The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that comes next describes the container
Examples: Journal is made up of articles Williams, Joy. Rogue Territory. The New York Times Book Review, 9 Nov. 2014, pp.1+. Television series is made up of episodes Hush. Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
Works Cited, How to Cite Other Contributors Aside from an author whose name appears at the start of an entry, other people may be credited in the source as contributors, and you note this if their participation is important to your research or to the identification of the work Common descriptors are: adapted by, directed by, edited by, illustrated by, introduction by, narrated by, performance by, and translated by Example: Hush. Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss
Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999. Works Cited, How to Cite Versions If a source carries a notation indicating it is a version of an edition of a work released in more than one form, you may want to identify the version in your entry Examples: The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.
Newcomb. Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 7th ed., Oxford UP, 2007. Scott Ridley, director. Blade Runner. 1982. Performance by Harrison Ford, directors cut, Works Cited, How to Cite Number If the source you are citing is part of a numbered sequence, you may want to document that Examples:
Multiple volume set Rampersand, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2nd ed., vol. 2, Oxford UP, 2002. Journal Issues, which include volume and issue numbers Baron, Naomi S. Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media. PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200. Works Cited, How to Cite Publisher
The publisher is the organization responsible for producing the source or making it available to the public If more than one publisher is listed and they seem equally responsible, list each and separate the names with a slash (/) Example: Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.
Another Tip: For Websites published by organizations, including museums, libraries, and universities, the publisher can be found in the about us or copyright information Works Cited, How to Cite Publisher Continued A publishers name may be omitted for: Periodials/Journals Works published by authors or editors A website whose title is essentially the same as the name of its publisher A
website not involved in producing the works it makes available such as Youtube Works Cited, How to Cite: Publication Date Sources especially those published online may be associated with more than one publication date or may just have one date to document When a source carries more than one date, use the date most relevant to your use of the source Examples: For an article on the website of a news organization
Deresiewicz, William. The Death of the Artistand the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur. The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014, www.theatlantic.com/archive/2015/01/the-death-of-the-artist-and-thebirth-of-the-creative-entrepreneur/383497/. Book Rampersand, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2nd ed., vol. 2, Oxford UP, 2002. Works Cited, How to Cite: Location How to specify the works location depends on the medium of publication
Examples: Print sources (uses a range of page numbers) Goldman, Anne. Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante. The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. Websites (uses URL) Deresiewicz, William. The Death of the Artistand the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur. The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014,
www.theatlantic.com/archive/2015/01/the-death-of-the-artist-and-thebirth-of-the-creative-entrepreneur/383497/. Physical Objects Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975, Museum of Modern Art, New York. MLA Resources The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue: MLA http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ Son of Citation Machine: Citation Generator http://citationmachine.net/
EasyBib: Free Automatic Bibliography & Citation Maker http://www.easybib.com/ Q & A Time Thanks for your attendance! Remember, if you need research help, all you have to do is ask the librarians. You can Visit the Reference Desk, Library 1st floor Email us at [email protected]
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