Introduction to Multimedia Systems - Birmingham

Introduction to Multimedia Systems - Birmingham

Introduction to Multimedia Systems The Term Multimedia Composed of 2 parts: Multi (multus) : numerous, multiple Media (medium): middle, center agent for something. Used for dissemination (distribute) and representation of information. In general, multimedia could be defined as the usage of multiple agent (text, audio, video, images) for disseminating and presenting information to audience

(target user) The Term Media Can be categorized based on a few criteria: Perception media Representation media Presentation media Storage media Transmission media Perception Media

How do humans perceive information We perceive information from what we see and what we hear Visual media: Text, graphics, images, video Auditory media: Music, sound and voice Representation Media

How in information encoded in the computer Referring to how the information is represented internally to the computer. The encoding used is of essential importance. Several options: Text is encoded in ASCII An audio data stream in PCM (Pulse Coded Modulation) Image in JPEG format Video in MPEG format

Presentation Media Which medium is used to output information from the computer or input in the computer Refers to physical means used by systems to reproduce information for humans, e.g: audio and visual devices Input: Keyboards, cameras, microphone, Head Mounted Device (for VR input)

Output: Paper, monitors, loudspeakers Storage Media Where is information stored Refer to various physical means for storing computer data, such as magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, or digital optical disks (CD-ROM, CD, DVD) Transmission Media

Which medium is used to transmit data Refers to the physical means cable of various type (coaxial cable, twisted pair, fiber optics), radio tower, satellite that allow the transmission of telecommunication signals. The difference between transmission media and storage media is the capability of transferring data continuously over networked computers. Definition: Multimedia Systems The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

1. The combined use of media, such as movies, music, lighting, CDROMs, and the Internet, as for education or entertainment Multimedia is the presentation of a (usually interactive) computer application, incorporating media elements such as text graphics, video, animation, and sound, on a computer. It is the melding of the sensory power of television with the data manipulation and interactive capabilities of computer Definition: Multimedia Systems The presentation of a computer application, usually interactive, that incorporates media elements such as text, graphics, video, animation, and sound on a computer. Multimedia melds the sensory power of television with the data manipulation and interactive powers of computer. A multimedia system is characterized by computercontrolled, integrated production, manipulation,presentation, storage and communication of independent information,which is encoded at least through

continuous (time-dependent) and a discrete (timeindependent) medium. Key Properties of a Multimedia Systems Discrete and Continuous Media Independent Media At least one discrete and continuous media Separate each media independently

Computer-Controlled Systems Integration Interactive Multimedia Systems Interaction Thought - Something that you do to yourself ~ internal process (mental state) Action - Something you do to an object in the world. The effect is that something in the world has changed. E.g.: pressing key, clicking mouse button Interaction - Involves the participant in going outside the individual. Two way process. E.g.: give a query to search engine which can return an outcome of my search. Properties Various media integration

High level degree of interactivity between user and computer Digital environment Application Areas of IMS Education Training Point of Sales Information (Kiosk)

Computer Aided Learning (CAL) E-Learning (World Wide Web) Direct visitors around the large complexes News Delivery, Broadcasting and Advertising Commerce and Business Applications Virtual Reality (Games) The History of Multimedia

1972 A Game of Pong (first commercial multimedia product) 1973 ATARI (laser disc, used in game cartridges) 1973 IBM Discovision (first multimedia interactive kiosk products) 1978 Apple II (with floppy drive) 1981 Microsoft and IBM (IBM PC) Christmas 1981 Nintendo hit the market (30 million machines) 1982 Apple II had voice synthesis capability The History of Multimedia

1980s mouse was invented by Xerox Corp. 1984 Macintosh using mouse 1984 Virtual Reality was invented by NASA, input devices using HMD (Head-Mounted Display) and Dataglove 1985 Macromind (Macromedia) produced VideoWorks, later changed to Director (the most widely used cross-platform multimedia authoring tool) 1986 first electronic encyclopedia, first international conference on multimedia, first CD-ROM 1987 Mac II (first color GUI) 1988 CD-R (CD-Record) 1989 Creative Labs (Sound Blaster sound card)

The History of Multimedia 1990s Adobe released Photoshop. 1990s Windows 3.0 multimedia enabled by Microsoft 1992 first children s interactive book title Just Grandma and Me 1993 double speed CD-ROM drives as a multimedia standard 1993 Web Browser Mosaic

1994 Web Browser Netscape 1995 Multimedia PC, 32 bit, Windows 95. Later followed by Windows 98, Windows 2000 Input Devices 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Keyboard, mouse (track balls, joysticks, etc) graphics tablets - drawing Scanner capture image from printed material Digital camera - capture and transform image into digital form Touch screen for kiosk application Analogue audio input from microphone and audio player

Networking support for fail distribution modem Output Devices High resolution screen, 256 colors (at least) output video Speakers, amplifier or tape devices - Output audio Network with capacity at 10 millions bit/second Analog modem at 28 800 bit/second speed. ISDN digital modem at speed 128 000 bit/second. Printer Storage Requirements

At least 32MB RAM to produce good quality of graphics, audio, video, etc VRAM (Video Random Access Memory) to support high color definition Hard disk at high volume capacity with good drive system speed to support graphics, video, audio, and animation processing. Secondary storage CD-ROM, Magnetic Tape, etc Hypermedia Hypermedia is a way of organizing multimedia information by linking media elements. Hypermedia has grown out of a fusion between hypertext and multimedia.

Hypertext was developed to provide a different structure for basic text in computer systems : text is essentially sequential in nature, even though its structure is hierarchical (chapters, sections, subsections, paragraphs) hypertext was developed to permit more random access between components of text documents, or between documents, to allow a greater degree of flexibility and cross-referencing than a purely linear or sequential model would allow. Hypermedia Chap.1 Chap.2 Chap.3

Chap.4 Chap.5 Chap.6 A sequential text Chap.3 Chap.1 Chap.5 Chap.2 Chap.4 Chap.6 A linked, self-referencing text Hypermedia

The structure of a hypermedia organizations is called a hypermedia web, which consists of a number of multimedia elements or nodes with links between them. Links represent semantic relationships, thus when a link exists between two nodes they must be related in some fashion : a digital image linked to a textual description of it a slide-show linked to an audio commentary Most widely used hypermedia tools are hypermedia browsers, which let users view nodes and traverse links between them, and markup languages, such as HTML, which allow users to create

hypermedia webs as structured documents. Hypermedia Image Node Text Node Audio Node A Simple Hypermedia Web Why is multimedia so hot? Technology Push

More processing power per chip Progress in storage capacity Personal computer revolution Progress in networking Progress in user interfaces, and software Progress in compression techniques Market Pull Large market - Revolutionizing film/video industry Application challenges and competition

Market opportunities Customer demand and comfort

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