INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLO GY Prashant Sharma MCA 3rd Semester Definition Nanotechnology is science and engineering at the scale of atoms and
molecules. It is the art & science of building stuff that does stuff at the nanometer scale. National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2007 Unit Comparison Size Comparison Ant Head of Pin
Human hair Red Blood Cells DNA Carbon Nanotube Carbon Bucky Ball = 5mm =1-2 mm = 10-120 m diameter = 2-5 m
= 2-12 nm =1.3nm diameter = 1 nm History The idea of nanotechnology was born in 1959 when physicist Richard Feynman gave a lecture exploring the idea of building things at the
atomic and molecular scale. He imagined the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica written on the head of a pin. Figure 1.11: Richard Feynman. History (cont..) Experimental nanotechnology did not come into its own until 1981, when IBM scientists in Zurich, Switzerland, built
the first scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) This allows us to see single atoms by scanning a tiny probe over the surface of a silicon crystal In 1990, IBM scientists discovered how to use an STM to move single xenon atoms around on a nickel surface - in an iconic experiment, with an inspired eye for marketing, they moved 35 atoms to spell out "IBM". History (cont..) Three gentlemenHarold
Kroto from the University of Sussex, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley from Rice Universitywere awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996 for their discovery of a new composition of carbon, Carbon 60 in 1985. And in 1991, tiny, superstrong rolls of carbon atoms
known as carbon nanotubes were created. These are six times lighter, yet 100 times stronger than steel. A Buckyball. A Carbon Nanotube Fields
Applications As a sensor Understanding of molecular recognition Capture and recognize a specified molecule, i.e. bioarrays
Fig. 1-NASA aircraft containing smart materials with sensors and actuators. Simulating form and functions of birds www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/spinoff2001/langley.html As a Space Elevator Recent proposals for a space elevator are notable in their plans to incorporate carbon nanotubes into the secure design, thus providing a link between space study and
nanotechnology. Nanoscale Biostructure Design to mimic some type of bioprocess Main focus is on human repair and idea of selfassembly Diagnostic and Treatment Fig. 2-Carbon nanotubes as biomedical
sensors to test electrical properties in biomolecular environment For Energy Capture and Storage Sunlight storage, i.e. titanium dioxide. This material is able to absorb solar energy when combined with a special dye. Then the energy may be converted to electrical energy.
Fig. 3- New technologies for clean energy generation and storage, such as using hydrogen to supply fuel cells For Electronics Nanoelectronics combine biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computer science, i.a. computer chips (nanochips), nanomotors, nanoelectronics to bodys
nervous system Nanotechnology to the rescue of overheating computer chips Nokia Morph Cell Phone With Nanotechnology Potential Danger
Miniature Weapons and Explosives Disassembles for Military Use Uncontrolled Nanomachines Self Replicating Nanomachines Monitoring Tracking
Conclusion However, if the researchers in this field put together an ethical set of guidelines (e.g., Molecular Nanotechnology Guidelines) and follow them, then we should be able to develop nanotechnology safely while still reaping its promised benefits. Nanotechnology is predicted to be developed by 2020 but much depends on our
Cortex provides the hair's tensile strength. Cuticle layers bind the cortex bundles together. Cuticle layers protect cortex fibers from friction and mechanical damage. Cuticle responsible for surface properties of hair: shine, smoothness. Anatomy of the Hair Shaft. Hair Health. 5
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