Introduction to Psychology - Greenwood High School
Myers PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers 1 Which is a penny 2 Memory: Persistence of learning over time using 3 pillars of memory: 1. Encoding 2. Storage
3. Retrieval of info Flashbulb Memory: Where were you when? a clear memory of an intense emotional moment or event Pictures, others retelling, etc., can affect so remember things we didnt really experience Memory as Information Processing How it is similar to a computer:
1. write to file (encoding) 2. save to disk (storage) 3. read from disk (retrieve) 3 1 way it is NOT similar: We___ processcomputers ___ process Encoding: placing info into memory systems i.e., extracting meaning (comprehend it so can process) EX: New word suddenly appears everywhere? Storage retention of encoded info over time putting it into neural networksmaking
connections, etc. Retrieval: accessing the info: 4 process of getting info out of memory Memory: 4 different types: Sensory Memory immediate, 1st recording of sensory info in memory systems In bits, quick& most NOT stored EX: ppl walking down the hallwaydo you see all of them? Hear all? Or just flashes? What do you keep (retain)? Short-Term Memory (STM)
activated memory that holds a few items briefly look up a phone #, then quickly dial b4 the info is forgotten 5 Memory: 4 types continued Working Memory Newer termextension of STM processing of briefly stored info: Whats on your desktop at a given moment to work w/ What about working on a paper/essay? Longer time on desk-top : beginning to make connections to enable storage Long-Term Memory (LTM) the relatively permanent & limitless
storehouse of the memory system 6 A Simplified Memory Model: Where would working memory fit in here? Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding External events Sensory memory
Encoding Short-term memory Retrieving Long-term memory 7 NEWER VERSION: Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory Encoding: Getting Info In: 2 ways
1. Effortful: rehearsing to try to encode EXs? 2. Automatic: just sorta happens that we recall EXs? EBBINGHAUS: study of memory Encoding Effortful Automatic 9 Encoding Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental info
Space Frequency Time Daily events well-learned info: hard to shut off word meaningssomeone calls you a name? Using effortful, we can change it into automatic processing Ex: reading backwards: do it enough, 10 begins to be automatic; typing Mere Exposure Effect & recognizing/liking ppl The mere exposure effect, also known as the familiarity principle, describes a phenomenon that causes humans to rate or feel positively about things to which they are frequently and consistently exposed,
including other people. All else equal, you will buy products, invest in stocks, frequent establishments, and engage in behaviors that are familiar to you based on past exposure. This can lead to suboptimal decisions and results and has no basis in rationality. It can also pin you in to situations that repeat past outcomes, which may not be desirable. Ppl who are in your classes? Advertizing & choosing products? 11 Example of how the mere exposure effect influences your behavior: Imagine you live in NY City, are in Central Park, & spot a drowning child, splashing in a lake after having fallen off one of the small bridges. There are 2 people standing next to you on the bank as you chuck aside your shoes and rip off your shirt. You have a split second to make a decision about which of the 2 people youll entrust with your wallet, cash, phone, & keys. 1 = a man you see a few times a
month on the jogging trail. You dont know his name. You have no idea if he is trustworthy. You dont know where he lives. Theres no logical reason for you to trust him more than the other person. He could steal your stuff & change jogging trails. Odds are, youd never see him again. Yet, the probability is overwhelming the mere exposure effect is going to cause your subconscious brain to rate the jogger good, or at least better than the stranger, simply b/c you are already familiar with his face. Hes going to be handed your valuables, even though he could be a con artist or identity thief. 12 Effortful (putting effort into it) Processing
requires attention & conscious effort & often requires Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to maintain it in consciousness to encode it for storage Over-learning: Even after have learned it, still practice & rehearse = v. good retention know it backwards & forwards 13 Ebbinghaus (348): used nonsense syllables TUV ZOF GEK WAV more times practiced Day 1, the less repetitions to relearn on Day 2i.e., amt. remembered depends on amt. of time spent learning
Found nonsense syllables less effective in remembering than meaningful info WHY? connections in networks Created forgetting curve (aka retention curve) Spacing Effect: Massed vs. distributed practice: Distributed practice gives better long- term retention than massed i.e., shorter but more frequent sessions = better learning than long, cramming sessions! This is a VERY important piece of info 4 U !!!! 14 Encoding: Ebbinghauss retention curve Time in minutes taken to relearn
list on day 2 20 15 10 5 0 8 16 24 32
42 53 Number of repetitions of list on day 1 64 15 Encoding: Serial Position Effect (Place in a series) How could you use this info? Percent age of words recalled
Tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) items & the first 90 80 70 60 (primacy effect) 50 items in a list 40 30
20 10 0 Serial Position Effect: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Position of word in list 9
10 11 12 Those in the middle tend to blend (or blur) together ALSO.. *Availability 16 What We Encode: 3 types: 1. Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning including meaning of words + how it relates to other things Tends to create deeper levels of processing 2. Acoustic Encoding encoding of sound, especially sound of words EX: Rhymes easily remembered (If the
glove dont fit!) 3. Visual Encoding encoding of picture images 17 Creates more shallow processing Encoding: See p. 350: Sample ?s: Visual often = shallow processing But semantic tends to be deeper processing 18 Imagery: A picture is worth Mental pictures: seeing w/ words Can be powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding wreck vs. crash? Creating visual images in your head, not w/ real pics
Mnemonics: stupid memory tricks Greek, Mnemos (goddess of memory) memory aids, espec. techniques using vivid imagery & organizational devices Names of the Great Lakes? Planets? In 10 seconds, memorize the #s next 19 SL Take 10 seconds to memorize this series of #s 1812 1492 1941 1776 20 Method of Loci:
Chunking: a type of Mnemonic organizing items into familiar, manageable units Like horizontal organization We often do this automatically Phone #s or SSNs: Not 8645551212 but 864-555-12 12 use of acronyms: word or sentences to remember EX: HOMES: Huron, Ontar., Michig., Erie, Superi. Colors of the rainbow in order of wavelengths? Planets? Which is easier to remember? 21 4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6 OR 483 792 516 Encoding: Chunking Organized info is more easily recalled
2 better than 1 4 better than 3, etc. 22 Hierarchies: Categorizing related items Listed items remembered better in categories -poorer recall if randomly Even if list is random, ppl still organize info into some logical pattern *Break complex info down into broad concepts & subdivide more into categories & subcategories Encoding (automatic or effortful) Meaning
(semantic Encoding) Imagery (visual Encoding) Chunks Organization 23 Hierarchies Storage: Retaining Info Iconic Memory momentary sensory memory of visual stimuliEX? photographic or pic. image memory
lasting few tenths of a second Echoic Memory momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli 24 Storage: Short-Term Memory Percentage who recalled 90 consonants 80 70 60 50 40 30 20
Magical number: 7 (+/-) 2 Time in seconds between presentation of contestants and recall request (no rehearsal allowed) (5 or 6 7 8 or 9) 25 Storage: Long-Term Memory How storage works: Karl Lashley (1950): cut out part of rats
brains 1. rats learn maze 2. lesion in cortex 3. test memory **Synaptic changes Long-term Potentiation (remember action potentials??) increase in synapses firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation Strong emotions = stronger memories some stress hormones boost learning & retention 26 Long-Term Memory (LTM) Amnesia--the loss of memory Explicit Memory (aka declarative) memory of facts & experiences we can
consciously know & declare hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage Implicit Memory (aka procedural): retention independent of conscious recollection EX: a skilltyping 27 LTM Subsystems (B., p. 359): (Chart = EX of what mnemonic??) Types of long-term memories Explicit
(declarative) With conscious recall Facts-general knowledge (semantic memory) Personally experienced events (episodic memory) Implicit (nondeclarative or procedural) W/o conscious recall
Skills-motor & cognitive Dispositionsclassical & operant conditioning 28 effects LTM Storage: MRI scan of hippocampus (in red) Hippocampus = brain area that converts info from STM & WM into LTMworks in conjunction w/ areas of frontal lobe Hippocampus, just like hemispheres, is lateralized (left & right side w/ differ. functions for each) Hippocampus
29 Various categories of memory 30 Another memory model including the Central Executive 31 Retrieval: Getting Information Out (Use EXs for each!) (R = 3 Rs + a P!) Recall measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier EXs? Recognition
Measure of memory in which the person has only to ID items previously learned EXs? Relearning: Looking at how much time saved when learning material 2nd time EXs? Priming: using cues (or clues) to activate, often unconsciously, particular associations in memory i.e., connections to networks EXs? 32 Retrieval Cues (X) Percentage of words recalled 40 30 20
10 0 Water/ land Land/ water Different contexts for hearing & recall Water/ water Land/ land
Same contexts for 33 hearing & recall Deja Vu (French: already seen) cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of earlier similar experience "I've experienced this before. However, ppl resist believing this answer b/c = its so real! Mood-congruent Memory: We recall experiences consistent w/ our current mood memory, emotion, & moods become retrieval cues -sad? remember things you felt when sad b4 -angry? recall memories when last angry State-dependent Memory: Whats learned in one state [condition] (like high, drunk, or depressed) is remembered more easily later in same
situation EX: If practice on field rather than gym, will remember new skill better --SAT at GHS? 34 State Dependent Learning: After learning to move a mobile by kicking, learning reactivated most strongly when retested in the same rather than a different context EX: If we move kid to playpen, less likely to show this activity as
quickly. 35 State Dependent Learning? 36 7 Sins of memory: Ways memory fails us (365- 6): a) 1. 2. 3. b)
3 of forgetting: Absent-mindedness: inattention Transience: unused fades Blocking: interferencetip-of-the-tongue 3 of distortion: We mislead selves or others mislead 1. Misattribution: confusing the source 2. Suggestibility: effects of mis-info (false mem.) 3. Bias: pre-conceived ideas control mem. c) 1 of intrusion: Persistence: unwanted mem.s are just not filed (motivated 37 forgetting) Forgetting: (365)
1. Encoding failure 2. Storage decay 3. Retrieval failure 1. Forgetting as encoding failure: Info doesnt go to LTM b/c of inattentionor biasor misattribution, etc. EX: Which is the Penny? 2 Storage decay: Use it or loose it EX: foreign lang. use? 3 Retrieval failure (368) Cant retrieve info from LTM b/c of blocking, interference, etc. Motivated Forgetting (370) ppl unknowingly revise memories b/c it is what you would rather believe (denial?) Repression: Freuds term for defense mechanism that removes from consciousness 38 upsetting thoughts, feelings, & memories
leads to forgetting Attention External events Sensory memory Encoding Short- Encoding term memory Longterm memory OR Encoding failure leads 39
to forgetting Forgetting % of list retained when relearning 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12345 10
15 20 25 Ebbinghau s forgetting curve over 30 days Initially rapid, then levels off with time 30
Time in days since learning list 40 Forgetting The forgetting curve for Spanish learned in school % of original Vocab. retained 100% 90 80 70 Retention drops,
60 then levels off 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 9 14 25
35 49 41 Time in yrs after completion of Spanish course Forgetting as Interference (369) Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other info Can go 1 of 2 ways 1) Proactive (forward acting) Interference disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new informationold interrupts ne EX: Knew Judymeet Julie keep calling her Judy 2) Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference Learning new info interrupts recall of old
EX: Knew Judymeet Julie but now if you see Judy, you call her Julie 42 Retrieval Failure Interference Forgetting as Interference 2nd example: Learn Frenchthen Spanish 44 Forgetting: Going for a walk or sleeping can limit retro interference -new info makes old info hard to retrieve Retroactive Interference Percentage 90%
of syllables 80 recalled 70 Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep 60 50 40 30 20 10 After remaining awake 0
Positive transfer: Opposite of interference b/c old info can often HELP (or facilitate) remembering EX: Latin helps us learn Frenchor advanced English words ----------------------------------------------------- Why might advertisers NOT want to advertise during violent TV shows? (b-369) 46 Memory Construction We filter info & fill in missing pieces Misinformation Effect: incorporating misleading info into our memory of an event
(wreck/crash?) Source Amnesia (misattribution): attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or even imagined Eyewitness testimony Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned ..?s can affect mem. E-W memory CAN be unreliable Emotion can affect EX: Priest & Gentleman Bank Robber? Evil Salsa 47 man? Forgetting Forgetting can occur at any memory stage As we process
info, we filter, alter, or lose much of it Meta-cognition: what we know about what we know or can remember Most ppl. overestimate ability in 48 this!! Eyewitness testimony? When they hit =14% When they smashed = __?_% Depiction of actual accident
Leading question: About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? Memory construction 49 2 Types of amnesia: A) Retrograde: Forget your past: Who am I? Where am I from? B) Anterograde: Forget the present cant form new memories: No STM gets to LTM Damage to what part of limbic system? 50
Memory Construction Memories of Abuse: Motivated Forgetting? Repressed or Constructed? Child sexual abuse does occur Some adults do actually forget such episodes repressed = Freuds term for itaka blocked False Memory Syndrome Condition where a persons identity & relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience Sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists Guidelines are now set to try to stop or limit these 51 Memory Construction: Mem. of abuse: RE: the ? of recovered (repressed) memories:
Injustice happens. Incest happens Forgetting happens Recovered memories are commonplace Unpleasant memoriesfalse OR realare upsetting But most ppl. (& psy.) do agree on the following: Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable meaning they must be looked at carefully Memories of things happening b4 age 3 are 52 unreliable
Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? Loftus studies with children ADD in or Accentuate! 1) 2 brain areas that especially help memoryand WHICH area for which?? 2) The way our memory of past episodes in life can sometimes be remembered as better than the original events.or better than we remember shortly after the event. 54 Answers: 1) cerebellum: implicit memory hippocampus: explicit mem. (LTM
STM) 2) rosy retrospection 55 9 Ways to Improve Your Memory 1. Study repeatedly to boost recall 2. Make material personally meaningful (relate to things you already know) 3. Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation & mood 4. Recall events while they are fresh-before you encounter misinformation 5. Minimize interference 6. Use mnemonic devices a) associate w/ peg wordssomething youve
already stored b) make up story about the infoor tell someone about the info c) Use chunking & acronyms 56 7. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material 8. Take a break! 9. Test your own knowledge rehearse determine what you do not yet know And be sure to Use Elaboration: Ways -Actively question new information -Think about its implications -Relate information to things you already know -Generate your own examples of concepts -Dont just highlight passage as you read
-Focus on the main or big ideas in the text -Organize these ideas hierarchically ? Activity NEXT. STOP! 57 Point 1: Thalamus: Should describe the role of the thalamus in the process, specifically that the neural message from the retina first passes through the thalamus, and that the thalamus routes the impulse elsewhere in the brain. Point 2: Retina: Should explain that the light that passes through the pupil, eventually reflected on the pupil, activating neurons in the retina. May use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point.
58 Point 3: Pupil: Should describe how light reflects off the object, and some of the light passes thru pupil into the eye. Point 4: Transduction: Should explain that light waves that were reflected off object are changed into neural impulses (transduction) at the point of the retina, where neurons fire in response to light waves. Again, may use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point. Point 5: Action potential: Should explain that action potentials are released when neurons fire, sending an electrical charge thru the neuron. Students can go on to explain this process in more detail (describing the role of neural structures such as dendrites &
the axon) but they nt have to explain those details to earn the 59 point. Point 6: Feature detector: Should discuss the role of feature detectors in their visual perception. Should mention it comes from the thalamus, which routed the neural impulse to the feature detectors, and these groups of neurons organize the neural firings into a conscious visual perception of the object. Students can identify the specific location of the feature detectors (visual cortex in the occipital lobe), but they do not have to provide this detail to earn the point. 60
CH 8/9 FRQs Continuous: (Define!) When someone gives one response, they get something each time. An example would be putting $1 into a drink machine and getting a drink out (a reinforcer). But if you give the required response and do not get the reinforcer, then you quit immediately giving the response. Fixed: In this situation, you give a specific number of responses will take you longer to consistently give desired response, but if reinforcer does not come subject is more likely to keep giving the response at least for awhile. 61
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