Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology

Friday, January 4 1. 2. 3. What are the 4 stages in Piagets Cognitive Dev elopment theory ? What are the three big stages of Kohlbergs Moral Development Theory? Do you think parenting style plays a role in a childs development? How? Give examples Todays

topic: Kohlberg, Social development and Erikson Upcoming Dates: Homework: Terms Pages 411-435, 448453 should already be read Tonight Read pages 441448, Finish Erikson chart Assessments: Quiz: Wednesday, 1/9 Adolescence: Social Development

The changing parent-child relationship Percent with positive, warm interaction with parents 100% 80 60 40 20 0 2 to 4 5 to 8 9 to 11 Ages of child in years Parenting Style: Do you think parenting style plays a role in a childs development? Give examples Strict vs. Easy-going

Social Development: ChildRearing Practices Authoritarian Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion Permissive parents impose rules and expect obedience Dont interrupt. Why? Because I said so.

submit to childrens desires, make few demands, use little punishment Does differences in parenting style affect a childs development? Part of your homework this weekend: Have a conversation tonight with your parent/guardian tonight about parenting: What type of parenting style their parents/guardians had on them? What effect did it have on their development? What type of parenting style do they think they have on you? What affect do they think their current parenting style has had on you?

Social Development Theory Lev Vygotsky Stressed the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Believed social learning tends to come before cognitive development Placed more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development Social Development Harlows Surrogate Mother Experiments

Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother Video 1 Video 2 Social Development Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange or new situations without their surrogate mothers. Social Development

Critical Period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life (Konrad Lorenz) Social Development Percentage of infants 100 who cried when their mothers left 80

Day care 60 40 Home 20 0 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 20 Age in months 29 Groups of infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room (from Kagan, 1976). Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development Erikson believed that each stage of life presents its own psychological task and has a crisis that needs to be resolved

Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler (2nd year) Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel

guilty about efforts to be independent. Elementary Competence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 yearsinferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence (teens into 20s) Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by confusion testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult

(20s to early 40s) Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relationisolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult (40s to 60s) Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contristagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult (late 60s and up) Integrity vs. despair failure. When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or Social Development

Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self-Concept a sense of ones identity and personal worth Adolescence: Social Development Identity

ones sense of self the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Intimacy the ability to form close, loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood Monday, January 7 1. 2. 3. Todays topic: Who are the three major Erikson, Adolescence and developmental Adulthood

psychologists and what do Upcoming Dates: they focus on? Homework: Erikson stated that the Terms most important thing that Pages 411-435, 441-453 we can do in our lifetime is should already be read to find our identity. Why do Read pages 453-471 you think this is so Read pages 479-490 important? Assessments: How do people learn how Quiz Wednesday to act like a girl or a boy? Terms due Wednesday Adolescence Adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Puberty the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction Body Changes at Puberty Adolescence Primary Sex Characteristics body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

ovaries--female testes--male external genitalia Adolescence Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics female--breast and hips male--voice quality and body hair Menarche (mehNAR-key)

first menstrual period Adolescence 1890, Women 10 7.2 Year Interval 20 Age 1995, Women 10 12.5 Year Interval 20 Age In the 1890s the average interval between a

womans menarche and marriage was about 7 years; now it is over 12 years Adolescence Height in centimeters 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 0 2 Boys

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Age in years Girls Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14. Nurture of Gender Nurture Gender Roles our expectations about the way men and women should behave in certain cultures How of Gender

are they learned? Gender Identity our sense of being male or female Can correlate with assigned sex at birth, or can differ from it completely Gender typing boys and girls are aware of their gender and thus exhibit traditional male and female traits and interests as their own Adulthood: Cognitive Development Cross-Sectional Reasoning ability score 60 Study Cross-sectional method suggests decline

55 50 45 Longitudinal method suggests more stability 40 35 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 74 81 Age in years Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal Study

a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Adulthood What are some of the unique things that happen in adulthood and lateadulthood? Physically Cognitively Socially Tuesday, January 8 1. 2. Todays topic:

What is the difference Kohlberg and Adulthood between Crystallized Intelligence and Fluid Upcoming Dates: Homework: Intelligence? Terms What is the difference Read pages 444-471 by between longitudinal the New Year and cross-sectional Assessments: study? Test: 5 Test, Friday January Adulthood: Physical Development Menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines Alzheimers Disease a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses 1.00 0.75 Proportion of normal (20/20) vision when identifying letters on an eye chart

0.50 0.25 0 10 30 50 Age in years 70 90 Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses 90 Percent correct when Identifying smells 70

50 10 30 50 Age in years 70 90 Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses 90 Percent correct when identifying spoken words 70

50 10 30 50 Age in years 70 90 Adulthood: Physical Development Fatal 12 accident rate 10 8 6 Fatal accidents per 100 million miles Fatal accidents per 10,000 drivers

4 2 0 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 and over Age Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older. Adulthood: Physical Development Incidence of Dementia by Age Percentage with dementia Risk of dementia increases in later

years 40% 30 20 10 0 60-64 70-74 65-69 80-84 75-79 Age Group 90-95 85-89 Adulthood: Cognitive Development 100 Percent 90

of names recalled 80 Older age groups have poorer performance After three introductions 70 60 50 40 After two introductions 30 20 After one 10 introductions 0 18

40 50 60 Age group 70 Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones (Crook & West, 1990). Adulthood: Cognitive Development Number Of words 24 remembered 20

Number of words recognized is stable with age 16 12 8 4 Number of words recalled declines with age 0 20 30 40 50 Age in years 60 70

In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall new information declined during early and middle adulthood, but the ability to recognize new information did not. Adulthood- Cognitive Development Intelligence (IQ) score 105 Verbal scores are stable with age 100 95 90 85

Nonverbal scores decline with age 80 75 20 25 Verbal scores Nonverbal scores 35 45 Age group 55 65 70 Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores

decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989). Adulthood: Cognitive Development Crystallized Intelligence ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age Fluid Intelligence ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood Adulthood: Social Development

Early-forties midlife crisis? Emotional instability 24% 16 8 0 No early 40s emotional crisis Females Males 33 36 39 42

45 Age in Years 48 51 54 Adulthood: Social Changes Social Clock the culturally preferred timing of social events marriage parenthood retirement Adulthood: Social Changes Percentage satisfied with life as a whole

80 60 40 20 0 15 25 35 45 Age group 55 65+ Multinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990). Adulthood: Social Changes

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