Introduction to XML Babak Esfandiari 1 What is XML? introduced by W3C in 98 Stands for eXtensible Markup Language it is more general than HTML, but simpler than
SGML it is used to to describe metadata you can define your own set of tags! 2 an XML document does not do anything on its own XML example
Paris 3 XML - what for? content is independent from rendering meta-data makes search easier
standard tags enable data interchange across tools format for data and object persistence, human readable and editable no need for a custom parser anymore 4 XML concepts and syntax Elements
can be nested must have a closing tag Attributes XML declaration Comments 5 XML concepts (2)
An XML document that follows the syntax rules is considered well-formed But there is no restriction on the nature, order and number of tags in a well-formed XML document! 6 in order to impose some restrictions, you need to
define validity criteria in a separate document DTD Document Type Definition Describes the XML tagset ]>
An XML document that is compliant to its DTD is valid 7 DTD Syntax Defining elements:
are hard to read DTD has its own syntax DTD has very limited support for data types 9 XML Schema a 2001 W3C recommendation allows the definition of elements and attributes
using the XML syntax supports many primitive types allows the creation of complex types uses namespaces to: 10 allow reuse of types and schemas avoid naming clashes
XML Schema Example http://chat.carleton.ca/~narthorn/project/community.xsd 11 Some XML-based standards MathML CML MusicXML XMI 12
XMI Example Museumname 13
XML Parsing Many XML parsers are available: JAXP, XERCES Two standardized parsing methods: SAX event-driven serial-access
element-by-element processing DOM creates a tree structure of objects stores it in memory easier to navigate, but more memory needed 14
SAX good to use if you are consuming XML data from a stream see Echo.java example (from JAXP) 15 DOM use
it if you need random access to various elements of the document see EchoDom.java example 16 XSLT eXtensible Stylesheet Language Templates allows the transformation of one XML
document into another by specifying transformation rules 17 XSLT example blah blah
18 Semantic Web Tim Berners-Lees idea of the future of the Web The goal is to make information accessible to
non-humans(ie agents) Therefore information should be structured and use metadata 19 RDF is proposed as such structure RDF Example See
20 Software Agents course example Refs W3C 21 specs: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml
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