Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger

Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger

Chapter 6 Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Psychosocial Development Emotions Initiative versus guilt The self

Guilt versus shame Motivation Play PlayPlay is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake Play is universal

Form of play changes with age and culture Peers and Parents Peers: People of about the same age and social status Provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding Children usually prefer to play with each other

rather than with their parents Types of play Changing Social Circumstances Types of Play (Midred Parten, 1932)- as social awareness increases, so do types of play. 1.Solitary play: 2.Onlooker play: 3.Parallel play:

4.Associative play: 5.Cooperative play: Active Play Rough-and-tumble play: Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.

Sociodramatic Play Sociodramatic play: Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create. Play Based on the work of

parent child interaction therapy Quality play criteria: Parents make no demands No No No

Follow lead of children Engage under the direction of children Take PRIDE in your play!!

PRID E- Parenting Styles Diana Baumrind (1967, 1971). Parents differ on four important dimensions: 1.Expressions of warmth 2.Strategies for discipline 3.Communication

4.Expectations for maturity Figure 8.4 Control, Acceptance, Parenting Style 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Baumrinds Patterns of

Parenting Authoritarian parenting Permissive parenting Authoritative parenting Neglectful/uninvolved parenting Authoritarian Permissive

Authoritative Neglectful Children, Parents, and the Media The Significance of Content

Violence on TV is often depicted as morally acceptable. Children who watch televised violence become more violent themselves. Racial and gender stereotypes are still evident in childrens programs. Educational television may have positive effects. Experts recommend that parents limit their

young childrens television viewing and spend more time talking and playing with them. Moral Development Decrease in egocentrism leads to the development of: Empathy Antipathy

Empathy ideally leads to prosocial behavior Types of Aggression 1. Instrumental aggression 2. Reactive aggression 3. Relational aggression

4. Bullying aggression Discipline and Childrens Thinking 1. Remember theory of mind. 2. Remember emerging self-concept 3. Remember fast-mapping. 4. Remember that young children are not logical.

Punishment Physical Define Why it is used Outcomes Psychological Time Out Sensitive Discipline

Ineffective discipline Becoming Boys and Girls Sex/Gender/Sexuality- define Continuums Doing gender Age 2:

Age 4: Theories of Gender Development Psychoanalytical Theory Phallic stage Oedipus complex Superego Electra complex

Identification: An attempt to defend ones self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else. Behaviorism Gender differences are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment

Theories of Gender Development, cont. Social learning theory: Children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe Cognitive Theory Gender schema: A childs cognitive concept or

general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences. Young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female, and then they think and behave accordingly. Systems theory Genes and culture, parents and peers, ideas and

customs all interact, affecting each child. Androgyny Androgyny: A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.

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