Ionic Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Ionic Compounds Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H+ Li+ Na+ K+ Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be2+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Predicting Ionic Charges B3+

Al3+ Ga3+ Group 13: Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions Predicting Ionic Charges Group 14 elements rarely form ions. Group 14: Lose 4

electrons or gain 4 electrons? Why can this group do both? Hint: Think of the rules for Bohr Diagrams Predicting Ionic Charges N3- Nitride P3- Phosphide As3- Arsenide Group 15: Gains 3

electrons to form 3- ions Predicting Ionic Charges O2- Oxide S2- Sulfide Se2- Selenide Group 16:Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions Predicting Ionic Charges

F1- Fluoride Cl1- Chloride Br1- Bromide I1- Iodide Group 17: Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions

Predicting Ionic Charges Group 18: Stable Noble gases do not form ions! Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - 12: Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. Iron(II) = Fe Iron(III) = Fe

2+ 3+ Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - 12: Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state. Zinc = Zn2+ Silver = Ag+ Making Ionic compounds from elements

Remember Metals tend to lose electrons Non-metals tend to gain electrons When a metal, such as sodium, reacts with a non- metal, such as chlorine, both processes occur Making Sodium Chloride https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ji_25I_q4LQ How elements combine

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4UydtSaZKk4 Ionic Compounds Positive and negative ions from different elements attract each other to form compounds called ionic compounds For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is an ionic compound made up of sodium ions, Na+, and chloride ions, Cl-

Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds that contain only two elements will always have one metal and one non-metal The attraction that holds the charged ions together is called an ionic bond

Ionic Compounds The element aluminum can also react with chlorine gas. Each aluminum atom has three electrons to lose Each chlorine atom can accommodate only one extra

electron How can these two elements bond to form a compound? Ionic Compounds Each aluminum atom reacts with three chlorine atoms to form aluminum chloride, a common ingredient in

antiperspirants Properties of Ionic Compounds Because of the strength of the bond, ionic compounds are hard, brittle solids They have a high melting point Most ionic compounds are also electrolytes This means they dissolve in water to produce a solution that conducts electricity

Naming Ionic Compounds The names of ionic compounds have two parts The first part is the metal ion and the second part is the non-metal ion Remember: The name of the metal ion stays the same The ending of the second ion changes to ide Lets Practice Give the name of the ion for each of the following

non-metal elements 1. Chlorine a. Chloride 2. Oxygen a. Oxide 3. Fluorine a. Fluoride 1. Bromine a. Bromide 2. Ia. Iodide

3. S-2 a. Sulfide 1. N-3 a. Nitride 2. P-3 a. Phosphide Writing Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds When elements form ionic compounds, elements move from metal atoms to non-metal atoms.

The resulting charged ions attract other ions of the opposite charge until the charges balance out. The compound that forms is electrically neutral In other words, the total number of positive charges must equal the total negative charges Sample Problem 1 What is the chemical formula for magnesium

chloride? Step 1 Write the symbols of the elements, with the metal on the left and the non-metal on the right Metal Non-Metal Mg Cl Sample Problem 1

What is the chemical formula for magnesium chloride? Step 2 Add the ionic charge of each ion above the symbol Metal +2 Mg Non-Metal -1

Cl Sample Problem 1 What is the chemical formula for magnesium chloride? Step 3 Determine how many ions of each type are required to bring the total charge to zero. Metal Non-Metal

1(+2 2 (Mg Cl ) 1) Sample Problem 1 What is the chemical formula for magnesium chloride? Step 4 Write the chemical formula using the (red) numbers

in front of the bracket as subscripts Mg1CL2 Sample Problem 1 What is the chemical formula for magnesium chloride? Step 5 Do not write the subscript 1 in chemical formulas because the symbol itself represents one ion

The chemical formula for magnesium chloride is MgCL 2 Sample Problem 2 What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 1 Write the symbols of the elements, with the metal on the left and the non-metal on the right Metal Non-Metal

Al O Sample Problem 2 What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 2 Add the ionic charge of each ion above the symbol Metal +3 Al

Non-Metal -2 O Sample Problem 2 What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 3 Determine how many ions of each type are required to bring the total charge to zero. Metal 2(+3)

Al Non-Metal 3(-2) O Sample Problem 2 What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 4 Write the chemical formula using the (red) numbers in front of the bracket as subscripts Al2O3

Sample Problem 3 Crisscross What is the chemical formula for magnesium chloride? Step 1 Write the symbols of the elements, with the metal on the left and the non-metal on the right Metal Non-Metal Mg

Cl Sample Problem 3 Crisscross What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 2 Add the ionic charge of each ion above the symbol Metal +2 Mg Non-Metal

-1 Cl Sample Problem 3 Crisscross What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 3 Crisscross the numbers of the ionic charges so they now become subscripts Metal +2 Mg1

Non-Metal -1 Cl2 Sample Problem 3 Crisscross What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide? Step 4 The chemical formula for magnesium chloride is MgCl2 Always write the chemical formula in the simplest

terms Al N = AlN 3 3 Lets Practice Write the chemical formulas for the following ionic compounds 1. Sodium fluoride a. NaF 2. Magnesium oxide

a. MgO 3. Magnesium chloride a. MgCl2 4. Calcium iodide a. CaI2 Lets Practice Write the chemical formulas for the following ionic compounds 5. Magnesium Nitride a. Mg3N2

6. Aluminum Chloride a. AlCl3 7. Aluminum Oxide a. Al2O3 8. Aluminum Nitride a. AlN Elements with Multiple Ionic Charges On the periodic table, you may have noticed that some elements have more than one ionic charge listed.

How do we determine which ionic charge is used in a formula? We use roman numerals in the formula to determine the correct ionic charge For example Fe2+ is called iron(II) ion, and Fe3+ is called iron(III) ion The process for naming ionic compounds with multiple

charges is similar to the standard method Sample Problem 4 Write the name of CuBr2. Note that copper could have with an ionic charge of +1 or +2 Step 1 Using the periodic table find the ionic charge of bromide

Bromide = -1 Sample Problem 4 Write the name of CuBr2. Note that copper could have with an ionic charge of +1 or +2 Step 2 Total the known charges Since each bromide ion has a charge of -1 and there are 2 bromide ions, we know that the total charge for the bromide is -2

2(-1)=-2 Sample Problem 4 Write the name of CuBr2. Note that copper could have with an ionic charge of +1 or +2 Step 3 Remember that the charge of all the ions must total zero. Since the bromide ions have a total charge of -2 we know that the copper must have a total charge of +2

? + -2 = 0 +2 + -2 = 0 Sample Problem 4 Write the name of CuBr2. Note that copper could have with an ionic charge of +1 or +2 Step 4 Write the name of the compound. Remember that Roman numerals are included ONLY if the metal has more than one ionic charge.

The name of CuBr2 is copper(II) bromide Sample Problem 5 Write the name of PdO2. Note that Palladium could have with an ionic charge of +2 or +4 Step 1 Using the periodic table find the ionic charge of oxide. Oxide = -2

Sample Problem 5 Write the name of PdO2. Note that Palladium could have with an ionic charge of +2 or +4 Step 2 Total the known charges Since each oxide ion has a charge of -2 and there are 2 oxide ions, we know that the total charge for the oxide is -4 2(-2)=-4

Sample Problem 5 Write the name of PdO2. Note that Palladium could have with an ionic charge of +2 or +4 Step 3 Remember that the charge of all the ions must total zero. Since the oxide ions have a total charge of -4 we know that the Palladium must have a total charge of +4 ? + -4 = 0

+4 + -4 = 0 Sample Problem 5 Write the name of PdO2. Note that Palladium could have with an ionic charge of +2 or +4 Step 4 Write the name of the compound. Remember that Roman numerals are included ONLY if the metal has more than one ionic charge. The name of PdO2 is Palladium(IV) oxide

Whenever you have to write the chemical name of a compound containing a metal, first use the periodic table to check if the metal has more than one ionic charge! Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet Write the chemical formulas for each of the following simple ionic compounds (a) potassium fluoride

KF (b) silver chloride AgCl (c) calcium nitride Ca N 3 2 Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet Write the chemical formulas for each of the following

simple ionic compounds (d) sodium chloride NaCl (e) aluminium carbide Al C 4 3 Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet Write the chemical names for each of the following

simple ionic compounds (a) ZnF 2 Zinc Fluoride (b) AgBr Silver Bromide (c) BaSe Barium Selenide Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet

Write the chemical names for each of the following simple ionic compounds (d) CaCl 2 Calcium Chloride (e) Ag S 2 Silver Sulfide Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet

Provide the chemical formula for the following ionic compounds Iron(II) bromide FeBr 2 Maganese(IV) oxide MnO 2 Tin(IV) chloride

SnCl 4 Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet Provide the chemical formula for the following ionic compounds Copper(I) sulphide Cu S 2

Iron(III) nitride FeN Copper(II) oxide CuO Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet Provide the name of the ionic compound PbCl 2 Lead(II) Chloride

FeO 3 Iron(III) Oxide SnS Tin(II) Sulfide Complete Simple Ionic Compounds Worksheet Provide the name of the ionic compound

Cu P 3 2 Copper(II) Phosphide CaBr 2 Calcium Bromide CuF 2 Copper(II) Fluoride

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