IP part 3 CS 340 Copyright in the News Opinion piece: Copyright: Its Corroding Musical Creativity in America Copyright violations & college students from The Daily Princetonian From Patrick Wolf to Def Leppard , why do artists keep re-recording their old hits ?
How Squeeze seized the keys to their back catalog ue Fair Use Wrap-up What uses of copyrighted material does fair use permit? Four factor fair use test is a must; no blanket guidelines Incidental, proportional, transformative uses often are fair uses Are site operators responsible for copyright infringing material posted by users?
Takedown notice: if sites remove material when asked by the copyright owner they fall into the DMCA safe harbor of avoiding liability Abuse of take down notices Often fair use considerations are not applied fairly See More Than 1 mil Blogs Go Dark Due to Takedown Notice 1.45 Education Blogs pulled offline Bye, Bye Dancing Baby: http://www.ipbrief.net/2012/10/22/dancing-baby-takes-on-universal-music-group/ SOPA & PIPA 2011 Legislation Colbert & MPAA chief
Other Kinds of IP: Patent Protection Exclusive grant of property rights to the holder from the US government prohibits others from making, using or selling the invention in the US Right to exclude others; holder has exclusive rights to make, sell, use invention In exchange for patent, enough information must be given so that at end of the patent term others may be able to use/create the invention
Quid pro quo Patent Law (continued) United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO): verify inventions are patentable and meet two criteria: Novelty: An invention is novel only if it has not previously been invented by someone else Nonobviousness: A solution to a problem that is obvious to another specialist in the appropriate area cannot be patented Ethics in a Computing Culture
5 Kinds of Patents & Timeframes 1. Design - ornamental - grant is for 14 years from date of patent grant 2. Plant/utility - for processes - 20 years since filing request Eligibility of software, change to allow patent, Diamond v. Diehr original process involving computer calculations includable in patent. IP protection of software
P. 130: Copyright the code Some aspects of look and feel copyrightable; compare Lotus v. Borland Atari v. North American Philips Trademark For identifying source of goods Patent? Bilski v. Kappos US S Ct 2010 (a.k.a. Bilski v. Doll) Utility patents are not just limited to the machine or transformation test.
Case Studies Coupling a process with software Amazon 1 click business method patent, p. 132 Google algorithm, p. 133 Apple, Samsung, Google and the smartphone patent wars - everything you need to know Article from the Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/oct/22/s martphone-patent-wars-explained Touchless Gesture Controls
Apple and Microsoft filing patents for touchless gestures controls. Details: http://mobility.cbronline.com/news/apple-microsoft-competing-for-touchless-controls-p atents-311011 From what weve discussed before, what can you tell me about why they are seeking a patent instead of a copyright? Looking at a tech patent Apples most recent approval:
ed-unlock-screen-gesture-patent Other physical gestures that have been patented: http://io9.com/5808604/10-physical-gestures-tha t-have-been-patented TradeMark quickFACTS Something that identifies the goods of one manufacture or seller from another Symbol, word, design, or something else
Trade Dress: involves the look and feel of a product or its packaging Test looks for distinctiveness, attributes of arbitrary or fanciful are important. Similar IP: the Service mark, ids a service Trademarks are indicated by TM or (R) symbols illegal to use without the registration process Having a trademark can help you enforce against the importation of infringing goods Trademarks require renewal (10 yr) Protection until mark becomes generic
Factors in a Dilution case If your trademark become generic, it can no longer be registered. blurring tarnishment 15 USC 1127 defines dilution as lessening of the capacity of a famous mark to identify or distinguish goods or services The idea is to bring a cause of action to protect your distinctiveness Factors a Ct. looks at in Trademark
infringement cases 15 U.S.C. 1114 1. Ownership of valid, registered mark 2. Alleged infringer used 3. In commerce 4. The mark or similar symbol 5. In connection with offering for sale, distribution, advertising goods or services 6. the use caused likelihood of confusion, mistake or deception. Trademark cases Teacher example hypothetical: PINK panties
Ty Inc. v. Perryman Chewy Vuitton: http://www.marylandiplaw.com/2007/11/articles/ip-news-and-trends/louis-vuitton-mal letier-sa-v-haute-diggity-dog-llc / The Daniel Moore case v. UA Opinion: http://howappealing.law.com/UnivOfAlabamaVsNewLifeArt.pdf On Appeal: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/02/02/artist-battles-alabama-over-football-paintings/ CW letter from D. Moore: http://cw.ua.edu/2012/02/20/university-cannot-license-free-expression/ Remanded:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/oliverherzfeld/2012/10/11/resolving-conflicts-between-tradem ark-and-first-amendment-rights/ Trademarking In the News http://www.torontosun.com/2012/10/22/star s-whove-attempted-to-trademark-catchphrase s Tebowing: http://espn.go.com/new-york/nfl/story/_/id/8525097/tim-tebow-new-york-jet s-trademarks-tebowing http://www.latimes.com/sports/football/nfl/la-sp-nfl-report-20121020,0,7462 30.story http://deadspin.com/5953262/tim-tebow-has-officially-trademarked-tebowin
g A kind of Trademark infringement: Cybersquatting 1999 Anti-cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act Creates a c/a for mark owners against those who in bad faith register, traffics in, or uses a domain name that is the same as or confusingly similar to a trademark. Trademark issues presented by: Hyperlinking: Ticketmaster v. Microsoft
Meta tag baiting: Playboy v. Wells Trade Secret Protection Info that gives a competitive advantage Applies to formulas, recipes, designs, processes For trade secret protection there are requirements that you have taken measures to protect information. Once information is out (in public domain) it is no longer eligible for trade secret protection.
The purpose of many non-disclosure agreements is aimed at maintaining trade secrets. What trade secrets can protect: Related to software: graphics, source code, object code, algorithms, programs or other technical descriptions, data flow charts, logic flow charts, user manuals, data structures, and database contents." examples from David Himelstein Trade secret status offers indefinite protection as long as secret is kept What if your trade secret has been reverse
engineered? Misc. IP Issues Creative Commons Creativecommons.org P. 134 Region coding on DVDs P. 137 Digital watermarking P. 140
Cases from Book, pp. 124-9 Bragg v. Linden Lab Plays for Sure Reusing Images found on the Internet DeCSS
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