Islam-Submission to Allah

Islam-Submission to Allah

Chapter 14: The Expansive Realm of Islam Muhammad and His Message Born 570 to merchant family in Mecca Orphaned as a child Marries wealthy widow c. 595, works as merchant Familiarity with paganism, Christianity and Judaism as

practiced in Arabian peninsula Muhammads Spiritual Transformation Visions c. 610 CE Archangel Gabriel Monotheism Allah

Attracts followers to Mecca The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam IslamAn Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists.

They believe in the JudeoChristian God, which they call Allah. Muslims believe that the Torah andPeoples the Bible,

likeBook the of the Quran, Abrahams Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM Ishma

el 12 Arabian Tribes SARAH Isaac Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of

Israel The Prophetic Tradition (25 In All) Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus

Muhammad The Quran Record of revelations received during visions Committed to writing c. 650 CE (Muhammad dies 632) Tradition of Muhammads life: hadith The Quran Muslims believe it contains the

word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.

Written in Arabic. Conflict at Mecca Muhammads monotheistic teachings offensive to polytheistic pagans Economic threat to existing religious industry Denunciation of greed affront to local

aristocracy The Hijra Muhammad flees to Yathrib (Medina) 622 CE Year 0 in Muslim calendar Organizes followers into communal society (the umma) Legal, spiritual code Commerce, raids on Meccan caravans for sake of umma

Muhammads Return to Mecca Attack on Mecca, 630 Conversion of Mecca to Islam Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques Kaaba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca Approved as pilgrimage site Covered in kiswah (robe) annually The Kaaba

The Five Pillars of Islam 1. The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of

worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. 1 2. The Salat The mandatory prayers

performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

2 2. The Salat The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday.

2 3. The Zakat Alms giving (charitable donations).

Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both purification and growth. About 2.5% of your income. 3 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy

month of Ramadan. Considered a method of selfpurification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.

4 5. The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. Must be done at least once in a Muslims lifetime.

2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5 5. The Hajj Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the

title hajji to their name. 5 Jihad struggle Against vice Against ignorance of Islam holy war Against unbelievers who threaten Islam

The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven. Islamic Law: The Sharia Codification of Islamic law Based on Quran, hadith,

logical schools of analysis Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity Other Islamic Religious Practices Up to four wives allowed at once.

No alcohol or pork. No gambling. Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.

The Caliph No clear to successor to Muhammad identified Abu Bakr chosen to lead as Caliph Led war against villagers who abandoned Islam after death of Muhammad The Spread of Islam

Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality.

Non-Muslims, who were Peoples of the Book, were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily portable nomads & trade routes.

The Spread of Islam Great warriors with a strong cavalry. Byzantines and Persians weak from fighting each other. Unity in Islam, strengthened by the Sharia, coupled with fair treatment of conquered people, was inviting to many in defeated empires who desired more freedom and

cohesiveness. Difficulties governing rapidly expanding territory The Expansion of Islam, 632 733 CE Muslims in the World Today Countries with the Largest Muslim

Population 1. Indonesia 183,000,00 0 6. Iran 62,000,000 2. Pakistan

134,000,00 0 7. Egypt 59,000,000 3. India 121,000,00 0

8. Nigeria 53,000,000 4. Banglades h 114,000,00 0 9. Algeria

31,000,000 5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the

total Muslim population of the world. Successors To The Prophet After the death of Muhammad, the caliph, or successor to the prophet was chosen. Abu Bakr was nominated as the first caliph.

Abu Bakr would lead the first caliphate, known as the Rashidun or Patriarchal Caliphate. The choice of Abu Bakr caused significant dispute as many believed that Muhammad had chosen Al ibn Ab Tlib, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad to succeed him. Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers

Successors To The Prophet Abu Bakr was followed by three more caliphs, the last of which was Al ibn Ab Tlib. It is with his succession that a division in Islam became more defined. Sunni Muslims believe that Ali was the fourth caliph, a position chosen based on ability to lead. The Shia (Shiites) believe that

Ali is the first Imam, and that only blood descendants of Muhammad can lead the Muslim people. Major Muslim Empires Rashidun Caliphate (622661) Umayyad Caliphate (661750) Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in Islamic Spain (9291031) Abbasid Caliphate (7501258) Fatimid Caliphate (9101171)

The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE) From Meccan merchant class Brought stability to the Islamic community Capital: Damascus, Syria Associated with Arab military aristocracy Policy toward Conquered Peoples Favoritism of Arab military rulers

causes discontent Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE) Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims Seizes control of Persia and

Mesopotamia Defeats Umayyad army in 750 Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion Content to administer the empire inherited

Dar al-Islam Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces Abbasid Administration Persian influence Court at Baghdad

Influence of Islamic scholars Ulama and qadis sought to develop policy based on the Quran and sharia Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE) High point of Abbasid dynasty Baghdad center of commerce Great cultural activity Abbasid Decline

Civil war between sons of Harun alRashid Provincial governors assert regional independence Dissenting sects, heretical movements Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne Economy of the Early Islamic World Spread of food and industrial crops

Trade routes from India to Spain Western diet adapts to wide variety New crops adapted to different growing seasons Agricultural sciences develop Cotton, paper industries develop Major cities emerge Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone

Historical precedent of Arabic trade Dar al-Islam encompasses silk routes ice exported from Syria to Egypt in summer, 10th century Camel caravans Maritime trade Banking and Trade Scale of trade causes banks to develop

Sakk (check) Uniformity of Islamic law throughout dar al-Islam promotes trade Joint ventures common Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) Muslim Berber conquerors from North Africa take Spain, early 8th c. Allied to Umayyads, refused to recognize Abbasid dynasty Formed own caliphate

Tensions, but interrelationship Changing Status of Women Quran improves status of women Outlawed female infanticide Brides, not husbands, claim dowries Yet male dominance preserved Patrilineal descent Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden Veil adopted from ancient

Mesopotamian practice Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Islamic values Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam Establishment of madrasas Importance of the Hajj Sufi missionaries Asceticism, mysticism Some tension with orthodox Islamic

theologians Wide popularity Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) Major Sufi thinker from Persia Impossibility of intellectual apprehension of Allah, devotion, mystical ecstasy instead Cultural influences on Islam Persia Administration and governance

literature India Mathematics, science, medicine Hindi numbers Greece Philosophy, esp. Aristotle Ibn Rushd/Averroes (1126-1198) Islams Golden Age Islams golden age peaked

under the Abbasids, during which Muslims absorbed the customs and traditions of the many diverse people they ruled. The emphasis on learning, which was taught by Muhammad, was reinforced by a flourishing economy based on trade. Art & Architecture

Mosques & Palaces Byzantine domes and arches Abstract & geometric patterns Calligraphy Often verses from the Quran Drawings & Paintings

Literature & Philosophy Poetry Much based upon themes of the Quran Preservation of GrecoRoman scholars Tales Most famous is The Thousand and One Nights Philosophy

Mathematics & Algebra Science Based upon Indian & Greek advancements, the Muslims pioneered algebra Astronomy Observed the Earths rotation

Calculated the circumference of the earth within a few thousand feet Medicine Doctors had to pass rigorous tests Hospitals set up Studied diseases and wrote medical encyclopedias that became standard texts in Europe Economics

Agriculture Trade Cultural diffusion Partnerships, credit, banks Manufacturing Guilds regulated prices, weights & measurements Specialized in steel, leather & carpets

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Managing Risk and Security in the cloud. Stuart

    Managing Risk and Security in the cloud. Stuart

    AUSTRAC document built for Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 and based on AS/NZS 4360:2004: Standard for risk management (Australian Standard) Proves Risk analysis doesn't need to be complicated or arduous.
  • EECS 498 Advanced Embedded Systems

    EECS 498 Advanced Embedded Systems

    3.2V for lithium iron phosphate and lithium nickel manganese cobalt gets to 3.7V (both with graphite negative electrode) As normal, has a capacity in mAh, but that capacity also describes the . ... Lead Acid. Electrolysis in flooded cells occurs...
  • Basic Laws - Eastern Mediterranean University

    Basic Laws - Eastern Mediterranean University

    Basic Laws Dr. Mustafa Uyguroglu Resistance Resistance: Basic Concepts and Assumptions Ohm's Law Resistors & Passive Sign Convention Other Eq. derived from Ohm's Law Example: Ohm's Law Short Circuit as Zero Resistance Short Circuit as Voltage Source (0V) Open Circuit...
  • Co-Dominance & Incomplete Dominance

    Co-Dominance & Incomplete Dominance

    Blood Donors. Blood type has a major impact who can donate or receive blood. Blood type is a reflection of the protein coat found on blood cells. There are three variations of this protein coat: ... Red flowers have the...
  • Biochemical Processes of Living Things

    Biochemical Processes of Living Things

    ATP 100% Renewable Energy. All living things rely on one source of energy to do all things from building molecules to flexing muscles = ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate).
  • AP Biology Labs

    AP Biology Labs

    The two types of categories of orientation are taxis and kinesis. In kinesis there is undirected movement, so it is random. However, taxis is different, the movement is more complex and is the result to different kinds of stimulus ....
  • Graphical Description of Data - Islamic University of Gaza

    Graphical Description of Data - Islamic University of Gaza

    Engineering Hydrology (ECIV 4323) CHAPTER FOUR Stream flow measurement Instructor: Dr. Yunes Mogheir 2015 * * Surface water hydrology deals with the movement of water a long earth's surface as a result of precipitation and snow melt Knowledge of quantity...
  • Welcome to Radiology

    Welcome to Radiology

    Department of Radiology ... Basement of the HSC, near MRI * In conclusion, for your patients.. Order the appropriate study * In conclusion, for your patients.. Order the appropriate study Give an appropriate indication/history * In conclusion, for your patients.....