Chapter 14: The Expansive Realm of Islam Muhammad and His Message Born 570 to merchant family in Mecca Orphaned as a child Marries wealthy widow c. 595, works as merchant Familiarity with paganism, Christianity and Judaism as
practiced in Arabian peninsula Muhammads Spiritual Transformation Visions c. 610 CE Archangel Gabriel Monotheism Allah
Attracts followers to Mecca The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam IslamAn Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists.
They believe in the JudeoChristian God, which they call Allah. Muslims believe that the Torah andPeoples the Bible,
likeBook the of the Quran, Abrahams Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM Ishma
el 12 Arabian Tribes SARAH Isaac Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of
Israel The Prophetic Tradition (25 In All) Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus
Muhammad The Quran Record of revelations received during visions Committed to writing c. 650 CE (Muhammad dies 632) Tradition of Muhammads life: hadith The Quran Muslims believe it contains the
word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.
Written in Arabic. Conflict at Mecca Muhammads monotheistic teachings offensive to polytheistic pagans Economic threat to existing religious industry Denunciation of greed affront to local
aristocracy The Hijra Muhammad flees to Yathrib (Medina) 622 CE Year 0 in Muslim calendar Organizes followers into communal society (the umma) Legal, spiritual code Commerce, raids on Meccan caravans for sake of umma
Muhammads Return to Mecca Attack on Mecca, 630 Conversion of Mecca to Islam Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques Kaaba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca Approved as pilgrimage site Covered in kiswah (robe) annually The Kaaba
The Five Pillars of Islam 1. The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of
worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. 1 2. The Salat The mandatory prayers
performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.
2 2. The Salat The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday.
2 3. The Zakat Alms giving (charitable donations).
Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both purification and growth. About 2.5% of your income. 3 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy
month of Ramadan. Considered a method of selfpurification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
4 5. The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. Must be done at least once in a Muslims lifetime.
2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5 5. The Hajj Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the
title hajji to their name. 5 Jihad struggle Against vice Against ignorance of Islam holy war Against unbelievers who threaten Islam
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven. Islamic Law: The Sharia Codification of Islamic law Based on Quran, hadith,
logical schools of analysis Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity Other Islamic Religious Practices Up to four wives allowed at once.
No alcohol or pork. No gambling. Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
The Caliph No clear to successor to Muhammad identified Abu Bakr chosen to lead as Caliph Led war against villagers who abandoned Islam after death of Muhammad The Spread of Islam
Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality.
Non-Muslims, who were Peoples of the Book, were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily portable nomads & trade routes.
The Spread of Islam Great warriors with a strong cavalry. Byzantines and Persians weak from fighting each other. Unity in Islam, strengthened by the Sharia, coupled with fair treatment of conquered people, was inviting to many in defeated empires who desired more freedom and
cohesiveness. Difficulties governing rapidly expanding territory The Expansion of Islam, 632 733 CE Muslims in the World Today Countries with the Largest Muslim
Population 1. Indonesia 183,000,00 0 6. Iran 62,000,000 2. Pakistan
134,000,00 0 7. Egypt 59,000,000 3. India 121,000,00 0
8. Nigeria 53,000,000 4. Banglades h 114,000,00 0 9. Algeria
31,000,000 5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the
total Muslim population of the world. Successors To The Prophet After the death of Muhammad, the caliph, or successor to the prophet was chosen. Abu Bakr was nominated as the first caliph.
Abu Bakr would lead the first caliphate, known as the Rashidun or Patriarchal Caliphate. The choice of Abu Bakr caused significant dispute as many believed that Muhammad had chosen Al ibn Ab Tlib, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad to succeed him. Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers
Successors To The Prophet Abu Bakr was followed by three more caliphs, the last of which was Al ibn Ab Tlib. It is with his succession that a division in Islam became more defined. Sunni Muslims believe that Ali was the fourth caliph, a position chosen based on ability to lead. The Shia (Shiites) believe that
Ali is the first Imam, and that only blood descendants of Muhammad can lead the Muslim people. Major Muslim Empires Rashidun Caliphate (622661) Umayyad Caliphate (661750) Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in Islamic Spain (9291031) Abbasid Caliphate (7501258) Fatimid Caliphate (9101171)
The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE) From Meccan merchant class Brought stability to the Islamic community Capital: Damascus, Syria Associated with Arab military aristocracy Policy toward Conquered Peoples Favoritism of Arab military rulers
causes discontent Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE) Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims Seizes control of Persia and
Mesopotamia Defeats Umayyad army in 750 Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion Content to administer the empire inherited
Dar al-Islam Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces Abbasid Administration Persian influence Court at Baghdad
Influence of Islamic scholars Ulama and qadis sought to develop policy based on the Quran and sharia Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE) High point of Abbasid dynasty Baghdad center of commerce Great cultural activity Abbasid Decline
Civil war between sons of Harun alRashid Provincial governors assert regional independence Dissenting sects, heretical movements Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne Economy of the Early Islamic World Spread of food and industrial crops
Trade routes from India to Spain Western diet adapts to wide variety New crops adapted to different growing seasons Agricultural sciences develop Cotton, paper industries develop Major cities emerge Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone
Historical precedent of Arabic trade Dar al-Islam encompasses silk routes ice exported from Syria to Egypt in summer, 10th century Camel caravans Maritime trade Banking and Trade Scale of trade causes banks to develop
Sakk (check) Uniformity of Islamic law throughout dar al-Islam promotes trade Joint ventures common Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) Muslim Berber conquerors from North Africa take Spain, early 8th c. Allied to Umayyads, refused to recognize Abbasid dynasty Formed own caliphate
Tensions, but interrelationship Changing Status of Women Quran improves status of women Outlawed female infanticide Brides, not husbands, claim dowries Yet male dominance preserved Patrilineal descent Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden Veil adopted from ancient
Mesopotamian practice Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Islamic values Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam Establishment of madrasas Importance of the Hajj Sufi missionaries Asceticism, mysticism Some tension with orthodox Islamic
theologians Wide popularity Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) Major Sufi thinker from Persia Impossibility of intellectual apprehension of Allah, devotion, mystical ecstasy instead Cultural influences on Islam Persia Administration and governance
literature India Mathematics, science, medicine Hindi numbers Greece Philosophy, esp. Aristotle Ibn Rushd/Averroes (1126-1198) Islams Golden Age Islams golden age peaked
under the Abbasids, during which Muslims absorbed the customs and traditions of the many diverse people they ruled. The emphasis on learning, which was taught by Muhammad, was reinforced by a flourishing economy based on trade. Art & Architecture
Mosques & Palaces Byzantine domes and arches Abstract & geometric patterns Calligraphy Often verses from the Quran Drawings & Paintings
Literature & Philosophy Poetry Much based upon themes of the Quran Preservation of GrecoRoman scholars Tales Most famous is The Thousand and One Nights Philosophy
Mathematics & Algebra Science Based upon Indian & Greek advancements, the Muslims pioneered algebra Astronomy Observed the Earths rotation
Calculated the circumference of the earth within a few thousand feet Medicine Doctors had to pass rigorous tests Hospitals set up Studied diseases and wrote medical encyclopedias that became standard texts in Europe Economics
Agriculture Trade Cultural diffusion Partnerships, credit, banks Manufacturing Guilds regulated prices, weights & measurements Specialized in steel, leather & carpets
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