ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 - ASE Bucuresti

ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 - ASE Bucuresti

Chapter 3: Network Protocols and Communications Introduction to Networks Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1 Chapter 3: Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to:

Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication. Explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications. Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to medium-sized business network. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2 Chapter 3 3.1

3.2 3.3 3.4 Presentation_ID Rules of Communication Network Protocols and Standards Moving Data in the Network Summary 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3

3.1 Rules of Communication Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4 The Rules What is Communication?

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5 The Rules Establishing the Rules An identified sender and receiver Agreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face, telephone, letter, photograph) Common language and grammar Speed and timing of delivery

Confirmation or acknowledgment requirements Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6 The Rules Message Encoding Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7 The Rules Message Formatting and Encapsulation Example: Personal letter contains the following elements: Identifier of the recipients location Identifier of the senders location Salutation or greeting Recipient identifier The message content Source identifier

End of message indicator Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8 The Rules Message Size An overview of the segmenting process: The size restrictions of frames require the source host to break a long message into individual pieces (or segments) that meet both the minimum

and maximum size requirements. Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address information, and is sent over the network. At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and put back together to be processed and interpreted. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9 The Rules

Message Timing Access Method Flow Control Response Timeout Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10 The Rules Message Delivery Options

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11 3.2 Network Protocols and Standards Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

12 Protocols Rules that Govern Communications Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13 Protocols

Network Protocols How the message is formatted or structured The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14

Protocols Interaction of Protocols Application Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Transport Protocol Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol Internet Protocol (IP) Network Access Protocols Data link & physical layers Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15

Protocol Suites Protocol Suites and Industry Standards Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16 Protocol Suites Creation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP The first packet switching network and predecessor to todays Internet

was the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), which came to life in 1969 by connecting mainframe computers at four locations. ARPANET was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense for use by universities and research laboratories. Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) was the contractor that did much of the initial development of the ARPANET, including creating the first router known as an Interface Message Processor (IMP). In 1973, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf began work on TCP to develop the next generation of the ARPANET. TCP was designed to replace ARPANETs current Network Control Program (NCP). In 1978, TCP was divided into two protocols: TCP and IP. Later, other protocols were added to the TCP/IP suite of protocols including Telnet, FTP, DNS, and many others. Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17 Protocol Suites TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

18 Standards Organizations Open Standards The Internet Society (ISOC) The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) The International Organization for Standards (ISO) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

19 Standards Organizations ISOC, IAB, and IETF Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20 Standards Organizations

IEEE 38 societies 130 journals 1,300 conferences each year 1,300 standards and projects 400,000 members 160 countries IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.11 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 21 Standards Organizations ISO OSI Model Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

22 Standards Organizations Other Standards Organization The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) The International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T) The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 23 Reference Models Benefits of Using a Layered Model Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24

Reference Models The OSI Reference Model Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25 Reference Models The TCP/IP Reference Model

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 Reference Models Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 27 3.3 Moving Data in the Network Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28 Data Encapsulation

Communicating the Messages Segmenting message benefits Different conversations can be interleaved Increased reliability of network communications Segmenting message disadvantage Increased level of complexity Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29

Data Encapsulation Protocol Data Units (PDUs) Data Segment Packet Frame Bits Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30

Data Encapsulation Protocol Encapsulation Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31 Data Encapsulation Protocol De-encapsulation

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32 Moving Data in the Network Accessing Local Resources Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 33 Accessing Local Resources Communicating with Device / Same Network Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34

Accessing Local Resources MAC and IP Addresses R1 192.168.1.1 11-11-11-11-11-11 ARP Request PC1 192.168.1.110 AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA S1

R1 PC2 192.168.1.111 BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB FTP Server 192.168.1.9 CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

35 Accessing Remote Resources Default Gateway Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36 Accessing Remote Resources

Communicating Device / Remote Network Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 Network Protocols and Communications Summary In this chapter, you learned: Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary devices, and the

media connecting the devices. For communication to occur, these devices must know how to communicate. These devices must comply with communication rules and protocols. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite. Most protocols are created by a standards organization such as the IETF or IEEE. The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and TCP/IP models. Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and other labels. The process is reversed as the pieces are de-encapsulated and passed up the destination protocol stack. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 38 Network Protocols and Communications Summary (cont.) In this chapter, you learned: The OSI model describes the processes of encoding, formatting, segmenting, and encapsulating data for transmission over the network. The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or approved, by a standards organization. The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for transmitting and receiving information using the Internet.

Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the protocols of the TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame, and bits. Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade associations to analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 40

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