ITM 352 Data types, Variables ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 1 Output in PHP Use echo for simple output echo 'hello'; echo 'hello', ' goodbye'; echo ('hello'); print is virtually the same syntax print 'hello'; You can use () if you like echo('hello'); print('hello'); New line for console output (we dont do much of this) echo "line1\nline2"; New line for HTML output echo 'line1 line2';
ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 3 What is a Variable? A named location to store data a container for data (like a box or bucket) 'Dan' 30.3 $name $age It can hold only one type of data at a time for example only integers, only floating point (real) numbers, or only characters A variable with a scalar type holds one scalar value A variable with a compound type holds multiple scalar values, BUT the variable still holds only a single (the compound type itself) value Syntax for a variable is $
PHP Example: $name, $age JS Example: var name, var age Case sensitive! ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 4 Assigning Values to Variables The assignment operator: "=" "sets" a value for a variable not the "is equal to" sign; not the same as in algebra It means - "Assign the value of the expression on the right side to the variable on the left side." Can have the variable on both sides of the equals sign: $count = 10;// initialize counter to ten $count = $count - 1;// decrement counter var count = 10;// initialize counter to ten var count = count - 1;// decrement counter new value of count = 10 - 1 = 9 ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 5
Creating Variables A variable is declared the first time a value is set for it A variable declaration associates a name with a storage location in memory and specifies the type of data it will store: $test = 1.1 ; // declares and sets a real number $test = true ; // declares and sets a boolean $test = 'Zip Zap' ; // declares and sets a string var a = 1.1 ; // declares and sets a real number var a = true; // declares and sets a boolean var a = 'Zip Zap' ; // declares and sets a string ITM 352 - Port, Kazman
Variables - 6 Variable Names: Identifiers Rules (these must be obeyed) Good Programming Practice (these should be obeyed) all identifiers must follow the always use meaningful names from the same rules must not start with a digit must contain only numbers, letters, underscore (_) and some other special characters
names are case-sensitive (ThisName and thisName are two different variable names) No spaces! ITM 352 - Port, Kazman problem domain (for example, eggsPerBasket instead of n, which is meaningless, or count, which is not meaningful enough) start variable names with lower case capitalize interior words (use eggsPerBasket instead of eggsperbasket) use underscore (_) for spaces CAPITALIZE constants (i.e. variables that do not change values) Variables - 7
Variable Default Values Variables have default values $test = $test + 1; // $test=0 by default $str = $str."Fred"; // default $str='' var test = test + 1; // test=0 by default var str = str + "Fred"; // default str="" IMPORTANT: It is best to not assume the default value is what you want. Always explicitly set the initial value of a variable!!!! e.g. $test = 0; $str = ""; $bool = false; ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 8
Two Main Kinds of Data Types Scalar the simplest types also called "primitive" or "basic" types cannot decompose into other types contain single values only Examples: Integer Floating point (real) String Boolean ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Compound also call class types more complex composed of other types
(primitive or class types) can contain multiple values Examples: Arrays Objects (more about these in ITM353) Variables - 9 Which Ones to Know for Now - 1 integer just whole numbers may be positive or negative no decimal point may use Octal: 0755 // starts '0' Hex: 0xFF // starts '0x' In PHP these are referred to as int boolean only two values true or false used for 'conditional' tests (e.g. if, when)
In PHP these are referred to as bool ITM 352 - Port, Kazman floating point real numbers, both positive and negative has a decimal point (fractional part) two formats number with decimal point, e.g. 514.061 e (or scientific, or floatingpoint) notation, e.g. 5.14061E2, which means 5.14061 x 102 In PHP these are referred to as double null The 'nothing' type (more on this later) Variables - 10 Which Ones to Know for Now 2.
A string is a sequence of characters A very common data type Names, passwords, addresses, histories, etc. Often used to represent complex data Dates, phone numbers, SS numbers, formatted output A common data-interchange or data-sharing type key-value pairs, XML, comma delimited data, logs PHP has a vast and powerful set of functions for working with strings. JS not so much, but there are frameworks such as JQuery that do. Manipulation, searching, comparing, translation, etc. Check out php.net Examples: Mr. Smith, 808-956-6948, 21.7, 1202 King St. ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 11 NULL Null is a special type that means "no value"
It can be used to unset a variable It is used as a place holder within compound types (more on this later) $a = NULL; unset($a) // $a is unset, also can use var a = null; // var a; would set a as undefined not null ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 12 Simple Expressions Data types can be operated on (e.g. arithmetic, string operations) echo 1+2; echo 3*2;
echo "Big" . " " . "Dude"; printf("5/3 is about %3d", 5/3); Operators: +, -, ., *, /, % ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 13 Simple Expressions With Variables Variables can be operated on (e.g. arithmetic) // add 1 to value in $test and set in $add $add = $test + 1; // multiply $test by 2 and set in $mult $mult = $test * 2; // concatenate string in $str with 'Fred' and // set in $str $str = $str . " Fred"; ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 14
Printf() Use printf() for more complex formatted output printf('This prints 2 decimal places %.2f', 3.1415927); This prints 2 decimal places 3.14 Printf() is a function whose first argument is a string that describes the desired format and the remaining arguments are the values to substitute into the type specifications (anything that starts with %) ITM 352 - Port, Kazman Variables - 15
The Metric System. Easier to use because it is a decimal system. Every conversion is by some power of 10. A metric unit has two parts. A prefix and a base unit. prefix tells you how many times to divide...
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- Include postage paid business reply envelope and a reply card in the packet to facilitate specific requests for additional information. EX - add a space or an item in the readership survey in the back of the magazine where...
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