ITU-R RECOMMENDATIONS on UTC TIME SCALE

ITU-R RECOMMENDATIONS on UTC TIME SCALE

RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS PNT ADVISORY PANEL MEETING Standard Time and Frequency Applications and GPS 4 October 2007 Ron Beard, Chairman ITU-R Working Party 7A B U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D.C. RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS TOPICS ITU-Rs Role in Standard Time and Frequency Signal Services The Role of GPS in Time Scales Broadcast Time and Frequency Services The Future of UTC IGS/NRL Clock Products Working Group The Role of GPS in Telecommunications Telephone Networks Cellular Networks

Internet Timing Summary RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS ITU-R Study Group 7 Science Services Working Party 7A Time Signals and Frequency Standard Emissions Responsible for Standard Frequency and Time Signal (STFS) services, both terrestrial and satellite. Scope includes the dissemination, reception and exchange of STFS services and coordination of these services, including satellite techniques, on a worldwide basis. Goals are to develop and maintain ITU-R Recommendations in the TF Series and Handbooks relevant to SFTS activities, covering the fundamentals of the SFTS generation, measurements and data processing. These ITU-R Recommendations are of paramount importance to telecommunication administrations and industry, to which they are first directed. They also have important consequences for other fields, such as radio navigation, electric power generation, space technology, scientific and metrological activities and cover the following topics: Terrestrial SFTS transmissions, including HF, VHF, UHF broadcasts; television broadcasts; microwave link; coaxial and optical cables; Space-based SFTS transmissions, including navigation satellites; communication satellites; meteorological satellites; Time and frequency technology, including frequency standards and clocks; measurement systems; performance characterization; time scales; time codes RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Defined by ITU-R Recommendation TF 460-6 A Stepped Atomic Time Scale Generated and Maintained by the BIPM Supported by the IERS in determination of (UTC UT1) Incorporated by Reference into the Radio Regulations Originated as a Common Reference for Coordinating time signals Compromise between Continuous Atomic Time and Solar Mean Time (Universal Time) Universal Time provides Solar Rotation Angle from Prime Meridian to Local Meridian needed for celestial navigation RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS DEFINITION OF UTC ITU-R TF.460-6 STANDARD-FREQUENCY AND TIME-SIGNAL EMISSIONS (1970-1974-1978-1982-1986-1997-2002) To maintain worldwide coordination of standard frequency and time signals Disseminate standard frequency and time signals in conformity with the SI second Continuing need for UT immediate availability to an uncertainty of 0.1 second TAI - International reference timescale of atomic time based on SI second as realized on a rotating geoid. Continuous scale from origin 1 Jan 1958 TAI = UT2 on January 1, 1958 0 h TT = TAI + 32.184 s UTC - Basis of coordinated dissemination of standard frequency and time signals. Maintained by the BIPM. Corresponds exactly in rate with TAI but differs

by integral number of seconds, adjusted by insertion or deletion of seconds to ensure agreement within 0.9 s of UT1. TAI UTC = 33 s DUT1 - Dissemination to include predicted difference UT1 UTC (values given by IERS in integralmay multiples of 0.1 s) Leaps Seconds be introduced as the last second of any UTC month. December and June Preferred, March and September second RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS FUTURE OF THE UTC TIMESCALE Question ITU-R 236/7 (2001) 1. What are the requirements for globally-accepted time scales for use both in navigation and telecommunications systems, and for civil time-keeping? 2. What are the present and future requirements for the tolerance limit between UTC and UT1? 3. Does the current leap second procedure satisfy user needs, or should an alternative procedure be developed? Proposed Modifications to UTC Definition

1. Change tolerance of UTC UT1 to one Hour (~500 years to accumulate) 2. Eliminate Leap Second 3. Create New Time Scale (Use of TAI not recommended by BIPM) RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS INTERNATIONAL TIME LINKS RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS BIPM Time Scale Generation RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS TAI-UT1 Seconds TAI-GPST TAI-UTC RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS SYSTEM TIME KEEPING NEEDS

Traditional timekeeping is a post processed value TAI and UTC are post processed time scales delayed from 30 to 60 days. Electronic systems are filled with oscillators and clocks generating time and frequency data that must be correlated across systems and nations in Real-Time Reference Time needs to be continuous and available on demand (RealTime) More and More systems are adopting their own system time. e.g., GPS TIME The increasing number of systems could potentially result in a multiplicity of system time scales UTC should be the single common Reference Time RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS GPS TIME and UTC (USNO) UTC(USNO) is generated by USNO and participates as a contributor to BIPM/UTC. GPS users assume UTC(USNO) is the global reference but many use GPS Time directly The uncertainty with respect to UTC is disregarded or not-significant for most users GPS Time (GPST) is the system internal continuous timescale Primarily used for positioning and navigation Secondarily used for disseminating time GPST offset and uncertainty with respect to UTC UTC GPST 14 s (GPST) RADIOCOMMUNICATION

STUDY GROUPS BIPM CIRCULAR T RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS IGS/BIPM Pilot Project (transitioned to Working Group in 2003) GOAL: Develop strategies to exploit geodetic techniques for improved global time/frequency comparisons Began March 1998 w/ participation of > 35 groups IGS contributions: global dual-frequency tracking network standards for operating geodetic stations efficient data delivery system state-of-the-art analysis groups/methods/products BIPM contributions: high-accuracy metrological standards/measurements timing calibration methods timescale algorithms & independent comparisons formation & dissemination of UTC RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS IGS CONTRIBUTING TIMING CENTERS IGS Site

Time Lab Freq. Std. Location AMC2 AMC H-Maser Colorado Springs, CO USA BOR1 AOS Cesium Borowiec, Poland BRUS ORB H-Maser

Brussels, Belgium IENG IEN Cesium Torino, Italy KGN0 CRL Cesium Koganei, Japan MDVJ VNIIM H-Maser Mendeleevo, Russia MIZU NAO

Cesium Mizusawa, Japan NISU NIST H-Maser Boulder, CO USA NPLD NPL H-Maser Teddington, UK NRC1 NRC H-Maser Ottawa, Canada

NRC2 NRC H-Maser Ottawa, Canada OBE2 DLR Rubidium Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany OPMT OP H-Maser Paris, France PENC SGO Rubidium

Penc, Hungary PTBB PTB H-Maser Braunschweig, Germany SFER ROA Cesium San Fernando, Spain SPT0 SP Cesium Boras, Sweden SYDN

NMI Cesium Sydney, Australia TLSE CNES Cesium Toulouse, France TWTF TL Cesium Taoyuan, Taiwan USNO USNO H-Maser Washington, DC USA

USN3 USNO H-Maser Washington, DC USA WAB2 CH H-Maser Bern, Switzerland WTZA IFAG H-Maser Wettzell, Germany WTZR IFAG

H-Maser Wettzell, Germany IGS High Performance Clocks masers (54) cesiums (32) rubidiums (27) time lab stations (25) + GPS space clocks RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS IGS (NRL) Time Scales Two Time Scales Produced (Loosely steered to GPS Time) Rapid (IGRT) Final (IGST) Stability better than 210-15 /day, GPST stability of ~ 210-14 /day Kalman filter implementation Formulated as a frequency ensemble Deterministic models for rates & drifts Process noise capabilities: White FM, Random Walk FM, Random Run FM

Inputs from ~ 54 H-maser, 32 Cs, & 27 Rb clocks, ~25 stations at timing labs Dynamic weighting of clocks Robust outlier detection Modular software design Can support IGS move to real-time operations Implemented for Final & Rapid clock products Loosely aligned to GPS Time via an LQG steering algorithm Became Routinely Available in 2004. RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS IGS Clock Products GPS SATELLITE & STATION CLOCKS Broadcast ACCURACY ~7ns LATENCY UPDATES SAMPLE INTERVAL

-- daily real time 4 times daily 15 min real time Ultra-Rapid (observed) ~0.2 ns Ultra-Rapid (predicted) ~5 ns Rapid 0.1 ns 17 hours daily

5 min Final 0.1 ns ~13 days weekly 5 min NOTE: IGS accuracy limit based on comparisons with satellite laser ranging results. RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS IGS TIME SCALES RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS Future Timing Needs/Directions for IGS Upcoming timescale improvements (2007/08): Improved satellite clock modeling (prediction) Improved dissemination of UTC Absolute calibration techniques/capabilities at the sub-nanosecond level (particularly for antennas) Conventions for handling or measuring inter-modulation biases; very relevant given other upcoming GNSS (e.g., Galileo)

Intra-system biases: C1-P1, P1-P2 (DCBs), 1-2, etc. Inter-system biases: GPS-Galileo, etc. IGS currently assumes Broadcast values (TGD) are tied absolutely via small tracking network (JPL) of calibrated AOA DCBi 0 Rogue receivers i RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS TIMING in TELECOM & PNT Telecommunications Syntonization of Data Streams and Communication Channels Understood as Frequency/Bit Rate/Clocking Read Message Bits Bits/s Bit Position Navigation and Timing (PNT) Synchronization of Signal Generators and Timekeeping Systems Understood as Phase or Phase Offset in Timekeeping or Time Metrology Time of Day (TOD) in Telecom Terms Time Difference

Bits/s RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS TELECOM STRATUM HIERARCHY STRATUM 1 PRIMARY REFERENCE STANDARD STRATUM 2 DIGITAL SWITCHING CLOCK 110 11 Cesium Ensemble SYNCHRONOUS NETWORK or FREE RUNNING ACCURACY GPS Receiver + Rb 8 Oscillator 1.6 10GPS/Rb STRATUM 3 DIGITAL SWITCHING CLOCK

DSC DIGITAL SWITCHING CLOCK Rb Oscillator 6 4.6 10Crystal Oscillator STRATUM 4 CHANNEL BANK END USER MUX Crystal Oscillator 32 10 6 RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Backbone for interconnection between the Networks Digital Implementation Optical Fiber Network SONET/SDH Distributed Architecture of PRS rather than centralized PRS of an Ensemble of Cesium Standards

PRS now consists of tow Rubidium secondary standards steered to GPS Time. RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS Wireless Network Architecture PSTN MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER BASE STATION CONTROLLER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER MOBILE

SWITCHING CENTER BASE STATION CONTROLLER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER TN = PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK BASE STATION CONTROLLER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER

BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION CONTROLLER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER BASE STATION TRANSCEIVER RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS Wireless Cell Site Air Interface frequency

tolerances D-AMPS (IS-136 TDMA) 0.5 parts per million GSM 0.05 parts per million CDMA 0.05 part per million RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS CDMA Digital Wireless Frequency & Timing requirements CDMA 0.05 ppm Precise time reference required as well as frequency GSM and TDMA do not require time reference IS-95 (Section 7.1.5.2) Base stations transmit their pilot sequence within 3 s To meet base station requires GPS and atomic or high quality quartz local clock.

Specification is 7 sover a 24 hour period. RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS Paging Network GPS Simulcast synchronization: 1 microsecond Paging message time stamping to absolute GPS time RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS Synchronization & Timing in Wireless Networks GPS & BITS required in MSC & BSC due to SONET rings & multiple carrier connectivity Cell site frequency stability & associated reuse enhanced by GPS timing & advanced clock technologies CDMA requires GPS synchronization Third generation (3G) wireless will most likely use GPS & advanced clock technologies GPS in mobiles will be one of the location technologies Multiple service providers & advanced transport like SONET, ATM & voice over IP create sync islands solved only by GPS everywhere RADIOCOMMUNICATION STUDY GROUPS SUMMARY

GPS has become the primary method of providing and coordinating Time and Frequency Services Worldwide The use in Telecommunications is extensive, both civilian and military PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network Wireless Mobile, Paging Services Internet, NTP Time Servers, Banking, Financial Transfers Sensor Networks (Geophysical and Remote Sensing) Power Generation and Distribution The extent of utilization is difficult to determine due to the ready availability of off-the-shelf equipment Increased capability provided by GPS is being exploited The maintenance of timing within GPS itself is of secondary priority GPS Availability and Capability has impacted the Time and Frequency Industrial Base

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