IV. Why Services Cluster Downtown Ch. 13 - Urban Patterns

IV. Why Services Cluster Downtown Ch. 13 - Urban Patterns

IV. WHY SERVICES CLUSTER DOWNTOWN CH. 13 URBAN PATTERNS A. Central Business District Land Uses 1. The CBD takes up <1% of the urban land area but

contains a large percentage of services offered in the city. 2. Includes public services, business services, and retail services. 3. High demand for the limited space in CBD encourages vertical development.

V. MODELS OF URBAN STRUCTURE CH. 13 URBAN PATTERNS A. Concentric Zone/Burgess Model 1. Suggests that a city

grows outward from the CBD in concentric rings. B. Sector/Hoyt Model

1. Suggests that a city develops in sectors or wedges that expand outward from the CBD. C. Multiple Nuclei/Harris and Ullman Model 1. Suggests that a city is more complex in structure and

has more than one center around which activities revolve. D. Applications of the Models 1. Models explain where people with different social characteristics tend to live and why. 2. Some models may seem too simple or dated to explain contemporary urban patterns.

3. Combining the models help geographers explain where different types of people live in a city. E. Applying the Models in Europe 1. Sector Model: In Europe, the wealthy still live in the inner portions of the upper-class sector, not the suburbs.

2. Concentric Zone Model: In Europe, most of the new housing built in the suburbs is high-rise apt buildings for low-income people and recent immigrants. F. Applying the Models in Latin America 1. Latin American cities blend

traditional elements of Latin American culture with globalization forces that are reshaping the urban scene, combining radial sectors and concentric zones. 2. This is the Griffin-Ford

Model. 3. Shantytowns and squatter settlements are unplanned groups of crude dwellings that develop around cities. F. Applying the Models in Africa

1. The African city usually has three CBDs: a remnant of the colonial CBD, an informal or periodic market zone, and a transitional business

center where commerce is conducted. F. Applying the Models in Southeast Asia 1. The McGee Model includes sectors and zones within

each sector. VI. EXPANSION OF URBAN AREAS CH. 13 URBAN PATTERNS A. The Peripheral Model

1. According to the peripheral model, an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. 2. Around the beltway are nodes of consumer and business services called edge cities. B. Defining Urban Settlements

1. Cities have been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit. 2. An urban area consists of a dense core of census tracts, densely settled suburbs, and low-density land that links the dense suburbs within the core. a. It includes urbanized areas and urbanized clusters.

3. The metropolitan statistical area measures the functional area of a city, including: a. An urbanized area w/a population of at least 50,000. b. The county c. Adjacent counties with a high population and residents working in the central citys county.

Defining Urban Settlements : St. Louis C. Urban Sprawl

1. Urban sprawl is the unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning 2. To counter this, urban planners have outlined a design vision called new urbanism, which includes development, urban revitalization, and suburban

reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs D. Suburban Sprawl and Segregation 1. The flattening of the density gradient for a metropolitan area means that its people and

services are spread out over a larger area 2. US suburbs are characterized by sprawl, the progressive spread of development over the landscape 3. The modern residential suburb is segregated by social class and land uses.

Changes in Density Gradient: 1900 Changes in Density Gradient: 1930 Changes in Density Gradient: 1960 Changes in Density Gradient: 1990

E. Urban Transportation 1. Motor vehicles permitted large-scale development of suburbs at greater distances from the city center. 2. As reducing pollution is a growing concern in urban areas, automakers scramble to bring

alternative-fuel vehicles to the market. 3. Public transportation can be used. It can be cost effective and more energy efficient, but it tends to not be a popular choice in most US cities. VII. CHALLENGES OF URBANIZATION

CH. 13 URBAN PATTERNS A. Changing Urban Physical Geography 1. Neighborhoods can easily shift from predominantly middle-class to low-income if more low-income residents move to a city, resulting in filtering,

redlining, and public housing. 2. Gentrification is the process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing. 3. Inner-city residents are frequently referred to as underclass and deal with a variety of problems, such as unemployment and poverty, potentially higher crime

rates, deteriorated schools, and lack of affordable housing. They often live in a culture of poverty. B. Urban Economic Challenges 1. Lower-income inner-city residents require public services but pay little of the taxes needed to fund

the services. 2. As a result, cities with the choice to either reduce services or raise tax revenues

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