Jelena Filipovic -

ECML PROGRAMME 2016-2019 PROGRAMME 2016-2019 DU CELV PROGRAMM 2016-2019 DES EFSZ LANGUAGES AT THE HEART OF LEARNING LES LANGUES AU CUR DES APPRENTISSAGES SPRACHEN ALS HERZSTCK DES LERNENS Jelena Filipovic Romani as a minority language in formal education: From theory to practice Graz, May 12, 2016 Why do we talk about minority languages in formal education? Most often proposed (generalized) goals and objectives in minority language teaching: FOR STUDENTS:

Equal and quality access to education Possibility for social and professional mobility FOR TEACHERS/POLICY MAKERS Continuous professional growth of minority language teachers (What about teachers of other subjects???)

Awareness raising among educational policy makers and practitioners regarding the importance and relevance of presence of minority languages in mainstream education Empowerment of minority communities members Community-based action, raising awareness among the speakers of majority languages regarding the importance and relevance of presence of minority languages in mainstream education AND THE CONCEPT OF BILINGUAL/PLURILINGUAL EDUCATION In recent years, integrative, bilingual/plurilingual educational models for minority languages are being developed; however. LANGUAGE POLICY AND PLANNING ISSUES: standardization and other debates

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES: initiatives for participatory action research still lacking (which would open space for local initiatives, leadership, creativity and innovation) TEACHING MATERIALS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES: financial and academic constraints In mother tongue education as part of literacy training and development in other subjects through CLIL To be certain: there are A. Psychological benefits to students Desired self, ought-to-be self (Drnyei 2005; 2009)

Self-confidence Self-worth and varlorization of a minority culture, language, tradition, religion, etc. Competences Creativity B. Educational benefits to students Autonomy in learning Commitment

to stay in school Development of skills for th 21st century (problem solving, critical thinking, different types of literacy) Development of cognitive strategies and learning strategies (bridging knowledges from different subjects in different languages) Constructivist, contextual approach to knowledge building (blurred lines between teachers and students) C. Social benefits to students Inclusion Validation

Mobility How does it work (or not work in practice)? The Serbian experience POLITICAL WILL : Openess to policy dialogue and to different perspectives ???? JOINT EFFORT OF EDUCATIONAL, ACADEMIC AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS (very difficult to achieve) BOTTOM-UP LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND PLANNING (still often rejected, political elite afraid of local initiatives) The Serbian experience (ctnd)

CURRICULAR ISSUES present-day situations: Teaching in majority language Teaching in majority language with minority language used for explanation of concepts and ideas Teaching minority language as additional subject Teaching minority language in first stages of the educational process (subtractive bilingualism) Bilingual/plurilingual education

The Serbian experience (ctnd) LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ISSUES STATUS ISSUES: position of different languages (majority language, foreign language, minority language; compliance with the ECRML) TEACHING CONTENT ISSUES: identification of learners needs! LITERACY : mother tongue/majority language/foreign language CLIL??? Does it work for minority languages in bilingual/plurilingual educational settings

Why do we need plurilingual education involving minority languages? Students actively participate in knowledge construction Collaborative teaching (teachers and students) Collaborative learning (teachers and students) Re-interpretation of teachers linguistic competences Enabling design and development of bottom-up language education policy

Adaptation to local community needs CLIL as a model for a modular approach to minority language integration into mainstream education Languages in all subjects (according to Beacco et al. 2015): Working toward equality, inclusion and social cohesion The relationship between language and knowledge: of language: - representation: expounding and disseminating knowledge established independently of language;

- mediation: transposing, verbalising, making it possible to go from one semiotic system to another; - interaction: transforming, allowing exchanges (discussion, debate, disputes) between the producers of knowledge and between the producers and users of knowledge, which may lead to advances in knowledge; - creativity: creating knowledge, the creation and recording of knowledge in writing thus being the two sides of one and the same process. (Beacco et al. 2015: 21) BICS & CALP(Cummins, 2008) Basic interpersonal communicative skills

Cognitive academic linguistic proficiency That is, Conventions of communication in science, technology and humanities (Beacco et al. 2015: 22): collaborative knowledge construction within a language and across languages (multiliteracy) Examples of Subject-Specific vs. General Academic Language Use in Different Content Areas (Beacco et al. 2014: 26) Subject-specific language General academic words and phrases Language as Subject Imagery, alliteration, theme, metaphor, plot Stylistic devices This expression is ambiguous That is, implied, contains, leads us to believe,

teaches a message History Revolution, emancipation, right, oligarchy To stand up for ones own right, usurp power Rights and obligations Therefore, as a result, consequently, consist of, on the assumption that... Math Reciprocal, balance, proof, hypotenuse, obtuse, matrix The curve is (sharply) rising /falling If ...then, end up with, derive, take care of, thus, suppose, prove, confirm Hypothesis, variable, infer, results, dependent (on)

Science Mitosis, gravity, force, sublimation Global warming To increase , to decrease, to stay even or to even out Language situations students need to cope with in school (ECML, 2015: 15) Social interaction in school Language use in school Acquiring knowledge in non-language subjects Relating to school rules, regulations,

requirements First, second, foreign or minority language learning Languages of schooling (CoE, 2009, cit. in ECML, 2015: 15) The learner and the languages present in school Languages of schooling Foreign languages modern or classical Regional or minority

languages Languages in other subjects Language as a subject How should it work: Modular approach to plurilingual education: Knowledge at the heart of learning Knowledge construction (different subjects) students collaborative teaching and learning teachers

languages of instruction Curricular Framework for Romani European Language Portfolio for Romani QUALIROM ( implemented and tested the Curriculum Framework for Romani (CFR) and the corresponding European Language Portfolio Models (ELPs) which are based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and were developed by the Council of Europe The role of ELP and CFR in plurilingual education: Task oriented

Romani children helping non-Romani children learn terms and phrases for major cultural features of their culture (Romanipe) Collaborative teaching and learning: teachers and Roma assistants working together with all children on specific tasks and projects related to a number of course subjects and topics (CLIL and TBLT) Works toward development of plurilingual competences and multiliteracy How can you use ELP for Romani or QUALIROM materials in your classrooms even if you dont speak Romani as part of CLIL? A.Use the themes to discuss specific issues of relevance to the children

My language passport (cntd) My language passport (cntd) My language biography My dossier: Use the ELPs in order to motivate the children to a)selfreflect b) develop autonomy in learning c) self-evaluate their own progress Qualirom materials: Romani language teaching: a proposal for a CLIL approach Name of author OR Abbreviation: Romani variety: Aleksandra Nikoli, Ivica Mikovi, Jelena Filipovi, Mirko Cvetkovi, Dragan Risti Central Serbian Gurbet

Level of education: Age of Primary learners: 6 - 11 Main Theme (CFR): Nature and animals Included Sub-themes: 1. Domestic animals 2. wild animals 3. plants (fruit and vegetables) 4. plants (around us, in the nature) Connected main themes in the CFR: 1. My community 2. Myself and my family 3. House/caravan and its activities Level of proficiency: A1 Working with the CFR Learning objectives:

Skill: listening reading interaction speaking Relevant descriptors in the CFR's language grid & I can statements: I can recognize and understand the words for different animals and plants. I can read the words for different animals and plants on a chart or in a book. I can answer some simple questions about the animals we keep as pets and animals in the countryside. I can answer some simple questions about the different plants that grow in different situations (e.g. flowers, trees, crops etc.) I can tell the names of the animals that I have seen. 77 77 77 Pages: 77

I can tell the names of animals that I see in a story book. I can tell the names of the animals that Roma people worked with in the past. writing I can write the names of animals that I know. I can write the names of animals that are in stories. Working with the ELP: Which part (s) of the ELP will be used? Language passport: My progress in learning Language biography: Dossier: I can statement the students and the teacher fill out together during or upon the completion of given activities Drawings and essays that children put in their Dossier (animals and animal habitats, photos of habitats made of play dough, illustration of an Aesops fable and/or a summary of an Aesops fable and/or a description of a pet, favourite animal etc., pictures and names of fruit and vegetables etc.). 77 Pages:

6-7 32 Classroom Activity Nr: 5 Description of activity: Children list the habitats of plants and animals and the teacher or a student writes the keywords on the blackboard. Example: " Ando vo / in the forest, telaj o paj / in the water, ande avlin / in the yard/garden, telaj phuv / in the ground, po kat / in the tree, ..." Afterwards, the teacher divides the children into smaller groups (depending on the number of children), and every group of children makes one plant and animal habitat from playdough. After the completion of the activity, every group presents its play dough-masterpiece, by showing it and describing the habitat. If possible, the teacher can take pictures of

the habitats and include them in the Dossier. Title of CA: Plant and animal world from play dough Belongs to Sub-theme: nature, plant world, animal world Skill speaking reading writing ELP Dossier Duration: 20 min Mat. / Res. playdough; camera, printer and computer Att. References:

Beacco, J-C. et al. 2015. The place of languages of schooling in the curricula. Council of Europe/Language Policy Unit: Council of Europe publishing. Coyle, D. Hood, & P. Marsh, D. (2010) CLIL. Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cummins. J. 2008. BICS and CALP: Empirical and Theoretical Status of the Distinction. In: Street, B. & Hornberger, N. H. (Eds.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 2: Literacy. (pp. 71-83). New York: Springer Science + Business Media LLC. Moe, E. et al. 2015. Language skills for successful subject learning. CEFR linked descriptors for mathematics/history/civics. Council of Europe/European Centre for Modern Languages: Council of Europe


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