Joints and Movement Articulations = Joints Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of the skeletal system Make bone growth possible Permit skeletal change during childbirth Enable movement in response to muscle contraction Skeleton Review Video
3 Types of Cartilage Classification of Joints Classification based
on the type of tissue that binds the bones: Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Synovial joints Classification according to degree of movement possible: Immovable
(synarthrotic) Slightly movable (amphiarthrotic) Freely movable (diarthrotic) Fibrous Joints (Synarthrotic) Dense CT with many collagenous fibers Lie between bones that are
in close contact Suture only between flat bones of the skull Gomphosis joint between tooth and socket; periodontal ligament Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints
(Amphiarthrotic) Consist of hyaline or fibrocartilage 2 types: Synchondrosis bands of hyaline cartilage Epiphyseal plate Costal cartilage
Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage that allows limited movement Intervertebral disks Symphysis pubis Slightly movable (amphiarthrotic) Cartilaginous Joints
(amphiarthrotic) Synovial Joints (Diarthrotic) Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces A joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid
Ligaments reinforce the joint Most joints in the body are synovial Synovial Joint Structure (Diarthrotic) Articular cartilage hyaline cartilage; resists
wear and minimizes friction Subchondral plate somewhat elastic bone located under the articular cartilage Absorbs shocks and helps protect joint from stresses May fracture from excessive stress from
obesity or athletic activities Synovial Joint Structure continued Joint capsule has 2 distinct layers: Outer layer consists of dense CT whose fibers attach to the periosteum Flexible enough to allow
movement but strong enough to hold the joint together Ligaments bundles of strong, tough cartilaginous fibers that reinforce the joint capsule Synovial membrane inner layer of the joint capsule Shiny, vascular lining of loose CT only a few cells thick
Covers all surfaces within the the joint capsule except the articular cartilage Synovial Joint Structure continued Synovial cavity area enclosed by the joint capsule Synovial fluid clear fluid secreted by the
synovial membrane that moistens and lubricates the joint cavity and supplies nutrients to the cartilage Synovial Joint Structure continued Menisci fibrocartilage disks that partially or completely divide the joint
into compartments between the articular surfaces Bursae flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid. Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together. Knee Replacement Surgery
Ball-and-Socket Joints Bone with a globular head articulates with the cup-shaped cavity of another bone Widest range of motion and rotation Examples hip, shoulder
Condyloid Joints Ovoid condyle fits elliptical cavity Wide range of motion, but no rotation Examples metacarpals and phalanges Gliding (plane) Joints
Nearly flat or slightly curved articulating surfaces Allow sliding (back and forth) and twisting movements Examples within the wrist and ankle, between vertebrae, sacroiliac joint, between ribs and sternum
Hinge Joints Convex surface of one bone joins concave surface of another bone Movement in one plane only Examples elbow, phalanges Pivot Joints
Cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring of bone Allows rotation only Examples proximal radius and ulna, atlas and axis Saddle Joints Bones with concave and
convex regions on articulating surfaces Allows movement in 2 planes Example trapezium and metacarpal 1 (thumb) Joints Review
(8:11) Types of Ordinary Body Movements Flexion Decreases the angle of the joint Brings two bones closer
together Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow Extension Opposite of flexion Increases angle between two bones Types of Ordinary Body
Movements Rotation Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis Common in ball-andsocket joints Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head no)
Types of Ordinary Body Movements Abduction Movement of a limb away from the midline Adduction Opposite of
abduction Movement of a limb toward the midline Types of Ordinary Body Movements Circumduction Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and
adduction Common in ball-andsocket joints Special Movements Dorsiflexion Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin Plantar flexion
Depressing the foot (pointing the toes) Special Movements Inversion Turn sole of foot medially Eversion Turn sole of foot
laterally Special Movements Supination Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly Pronation Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly
Special Movements Opposition Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand Joint Movements Protraction moving a part forward
Retraction moving a part backward Elevation raising a part, shrug the shoulder Depression lowering a part, droop
the shoulder Shoulder Joint Ball and socket joint made up of the rounded head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The joint capsule is loose. Muscles and tendons reinforce the joint. Shoulder joint is capable of a wide range of movements including flexion, extension,
Coracoacromial Ligament Coracoclavicular Ligament Knee Joint The knee is the largest and most complex synovial joint. It consists of the medial and
lateral condyles at the proximal end of the tibia. The femur articulates with the patella. The joint capsule is thin and strengthened by muscles and Knee Joint Ligaments of the knee joint: patella, oblique popliteal, arcuate popliteal, tibial collateral
(MCL), fibular collateral ligament (LCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strengthen the joint capsule. Cruciate ligaments prevent displacement of articulating surfaces. Two fibrocartilaginous menisci separate the articulating surfaces. Life-Span Changes Joint stiffness
occurs due to a change in collagen structure. Fibrous joints strengthen over a lifetime. Life-Span Changes Synchondrosis
disappear over time as part of skeletal growth and development. Symphysis joints may lose water and flexibility may decrease.
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