Journal #26: Propaganda

Journal #26: Propaganda

POP Quiz: For the following ad: 1.How are the ads utilizing ethos, logos, or pathos? 2.How effective are they at persuading? 3.Who is their target audience? Quiz: For the following ad: 1.How are the ads utilizing ethos, logos, or pathos?

2.How effective are they at persuading? 3.Who is their target audience? DISCUSS 1. How can you tell the difference between what is real (trustworthy) and what is not? How can we evaluate the truthfulness of what we read or watch? 2. Do you think most people can tell the

difference between what is reliable and trustworthy and what is not? Why or why not? 3. What do you think our focus on media and reality television says about our society as a whole? Why? 4. What is fake news? Who creates it? Why? Do you think you have read a fake news story?

SO WHAT? The media/corporations/politicians/everyone else is constantly trying to persuade you. The words, images, and sounds they choose work together to make you believe what they want you to believe.

Theyre really good at this! JOURNAL #6: PROPAGANDA Learning Targets: 1. Students will be able to synthesize definitions of propaganda to create their own definition. 2. Students will be able to identify

and evaluate various propaganda techniques. 3. Students will be able to connect rhetoric and propaganda. WHAT IS SYNTHESIS? Synthesis is where students put the parts theyve learned together into a whole to create a new meaning or

structure. WHY IS PROPAGANDA HARD TO DEFINE? All this will indicate that there is a lot of difficulty in working out any formal definition of propaganda. Most experts of the subject agree that propaganda has to do with any ideas and beliefs that are intentionally spread. They agree also that it attempts to reach a goal by making use of words and word substitutes

(pictures, drawings, graphs, exhibits, parades, songs, and similar devices). Moreover, although it is used in controversial situations, most experts agree that it is also used to promote noncontroversial, or generally acceptable, ideas. Types of propaganda range from the selfish, deceitful, and subversive to the honest and aboveboard promotional effort. It can be concealed or open, emotional or containing appeals to reason, or a combination of emotional and logical appeals.

HOW WILL WE USE SYNTHESIS TO LEARN ABOUT PROPAGANDA? We will look at propaganda techniques! We will look at specific examples of propaganda! We will look at different definitions

of propaganda! CHECKPOINT 1: BASED ON WHAT YOU KNOW OR HAVE HEARD: What does propaganda mean? Dont look it up but list whatever you know about it or

think you know. Feel free to list words you think are similar or any connotations you have with the word! PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #1: BANDWAGON an appeal to (persuade) the subject to follow the crowd, to join in because

others are doing so as well. Bandwagon propaganda is, essentially, trying to convince the viewer that one side is the preferable or better option, because more people have joined it. PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #1: BANDWAGON

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #2: ASSERTION An appeal to persuade the viewer using an enthusiastic or energetic statement presented as a fact, although it is not necessarily true. Often implies that the statement requires no explanation or evidence, but that it should merely be accepted without question.

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #3: FALSE EQUIVALENCE False Equivalency is comparing or equating things that are not appropriately similar in terms of magnitude, importance, severity, or blame. The purpose of a false equivalency can be to deflect attention from one side or part of an issue to diminish victims, raise up perpetrators,

appeal to hypocrisy, convolute the narrative, or obfuscate the truth. Oftentimes false equivalency most easily noticed in entertainment and/or news media. In some cases false equivalency can also be called Bothsiderism and results from an attempt to provide overly balanced coverage, even when the truth is discernable. The purpose of

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #3: FALSE EQUIVALENCE PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #3: FALSE EQUIVALENCE Bothsiderism can involve promoting conspiracy theories

on one hand in response to more legitimate views. SILLY PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #3: FALSE EQUIVALENCE

Since the Charlottesville attack a month ago, a review of commentary in the six top broadsheet newspapersthe Wall Street Journal, NYT, USA Today, LA Times, San Jose Mercury News and Washington Post found virtually equal amounts of condemnation of fascists and anti-fascist protesters. Between August 12 and September 12, these

papers ran 28 op-eds or editorials condemning the anti-fascist movement known as Antifa, or calling on politicians to do so, and 27 condemning neo-Nazis and white supremacists, creating a false equivalency. PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #3: FALSE EQUIVALENCE

Consider this brief period of history last week: A neo-Nazi murdered 11 Jewish people in a Pittsburgh synagogue; another white supremacist in Kentucky shot dead two black people after attempting to attack a black church; and another sent out 14 mail bombs. Faced with the task of reflecting on a historic week of racist or anti-Semitic violence, however, liberal and centrist media outlets have continued with, at best, fangless and, at worst, equivocal responses to the rise of fascism.

The response from the New York Times editorial board last weekend offers a case study in false equivalencies and platitudes under the veneer of anti-racism. The board went as far as noting that hate appears to be on the rise, in an op-ed which cited statistics showing that anti-Semitic and racist hate not only appears to be but, in fact, is on the rise. The boards main solution was to call for more good speech, from more good people. It was a riff on a quote, also used in the editorial, from none other than

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #4: NAME CALLING An appeal to persuade the viewer against something using derogatory language or words that carry a negative connotation when describing an opponent, alternate idea, or enemy. The propaganda attempts to arouse prejudice among the public by labeling

the target as something that the public dislikes. Commonly used in politics. CHECKPOINT #2 Based off the four propaganda techniques, and what you already knew, what is propaganda? What do you notice about the examples so far? How does

ethos, logos, pathos play into them? What about connotation? PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #5: PLAIN FOLKS An appeal to persuade the viewer that their position or arguments reflect those of the average person and that they are also working for the benefit of the common person. Also

that the speaker is a normal person. the propagandist, especially during speeches, may attempt to increase the illusion through imperfect pronunciation, stuttering, and a more limited vocabulary. Errors such as these help add to the impression of sincerity and spontaneity. PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #6: GLITTERING

GENERALITIES Glittering generalities are words (or short phrases) that have widespread positive meaning for individual people even if the words mean different things from person to person. Glittering generalities are linked to a cultures highly valued concepts and ideas. When these words are used, they demand approval without thinking, simply because

such an important concept is involved. What words do you think would be highly valued by Americans? List 8. TECHNIQUES #2 & #6: ASSERTION + GLITTERING GENERALITIES PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE

#7: LESSER OF TWO EVILS tries to convince viewers to support an idea or proposal by presenting it as the least bad option, among many bad choices. This technique is often implemented during wartime to convince people of the need for sacrifices or to justify difficult decisions. This technique is often accompanied by

adding blame on an enemy country or political group. One idea or proposal is often depicted as one of the only options or paths. CHECKPOINT #3 Based off the propaganda techniques,

and what you already knew, what is propaganda? REVIEW! JOURNAL 18 SO FAR 1. What are our learning targets?

2. What type of learning/thinking activity are we engaged in? 3. What types of propaganda have we examined so far? 4. What is the difference between your first definition of propaganda and check point one? 5. What have you noticed about the examples so far?

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #8A: CARD STACKING only presenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal and omitting information contrary to it. Card stacking is used in almost all forms of propaganda, and is extremely effective in convincing the public.

Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is true, it is dangerous because it leaves out important information. Also: Only presenting the pros and not the cons. PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #8B: MISLEADING NUMBERS

involves the propagandist using numbers or statistics that aren't always valid or are manipulated in various ways. The numbers presented aren't pure lies, however, sometimes they are shown in certain ways which cause them to be interpreted differently than they should be or context is missing.

PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE #9: WHATABOUTISM Deflecting difficult subjects or questions by purposefully changing the subject. Whataboutism refers to the practice of deflecting criticism by pointing to the misdeeds of others. Oxford Dictionaries defines it as the technique or practice of responding to an

accusation or difficult question by making a counter-accusation or raising a different issue. Essentially, its an appeal to hypocrisy a logical fallacy also known as tu quoque. Instead of proving that your opponents claim is wrong on its face, whataboutism argues that its unfair of the opponent to make that claim at all. PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUE

#10: FEAR MONGERING Using frightening and exaggerated rumors of impending danger to persuade viewers to act in a certain way, or the habit or tactic of purposely and needlessly arousing public fear about an issue. One type of Fear Mongering is Us Vs. Them: THEY are stealing from US; THEY are ruining OUR country; THEY

are corrupting OUR values. Bolshevism without its Mask This remarkable German postcard depicts the Earth, marked with a Star of David and a Communist Star on fire.

A soldier with a skull for a face sits atop the burning planet. The implication is that he is a Soviet soldier secretly ruled by the Jews. These cards were quite popular during the Great AntiBolshevik Exhibition. The exposition was held in Berlin Nov 1937 to Jan 1938,

Hamburg March to April 1938, and Vienna Dec 1938 to Feb 1939. PROPAGANDA OUTSIDE OF THESE TECHNIQUES

The propagandist tries to stimulate others to accept their claims without challenging the ideas, or to act as they want them to do. The idea of using suggestion or stimulation as propaganda is that it will lead a public to accept a proposition even though there are not logical grounds to do so. How does the propagandist use this tool? By making broad and positive statements. By presenting statements

in simple and familiar language. By refusing to admit, or even suggest, that there is another side to the question. Hitlers brutal and direct suggestion that the Jews sold out the German people in World War Ithe stab in the back, the Nazi propagandists called itis an example of this kind of propaganda. PROPAGANDA OUTSIDE OF THESE

TECHNIQUES The Russian dissident and chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov drew upon long familiarity with propaganda when he tweeted: The point of modern propaganda isnt only to misinform or push an agenda. It is to exhaust your critical thinking, to annihilate truth. Mr. Kasparov grasps that the real threat is not merely that a large number of Americans have become accustomed to rejecting

factual information, or even that they have become habituated to believing hoaxes. The real danger is that, inundated with alternative facts, many voters will simply shrug, asking, What is truth? and not wait for an answer.

WHAT TYPE OF RHETORIC DOES PROPAGANDA RELY ON? For each of the rhetoric terms listed, pick 2 types of propaganda that rely on inaccurate or misleading uses of it to work. 1. Ethos What did you

A. ____________ because ____________. realize while B. ____________ because ____________. doing this? 2. Logos Was it hard? A. ____________ because ____________. Easy? Which B. ____________ because ____________.

rhetorical 3. Pathos appeal was most A. ____________ because ____________. commonly B. ____________ because ____________. used?

SEVERAL DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS OF PROPAGANDA 1. Most students of the subject agree that propaganda has to do with any ideas and beliefs that are intentionally spread. They agree also that it attempts to reach a goal by making use of words and word substitutes (pictures, drawings, graphs, exhibits, parades,

songs, and similar devices). Moreover, although it is used in controversial situations, most experts agree that it is also used to promote noncontroversial, or generally acceptable, ideas. Reasons for propaganda range from the selfish, deceitful, and subversive to the honest and aboveboard promotional effort.

SEVERAL DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS OF PROPAGANDA 1. information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view. 2. ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause. 3. the use of a variety of communication techniques

that create an emotional appeal to accept a particular belief or opinion, to adopt a certain behavior or to perform a particular action. There is some disagreement about whether all persuasive communication is propagandistic or whether the propaganda label can only be applied to dishonest messages. NOW SYNTHESIZE YOUR OWN DEFINITION

OF PROPAGANDA IS PROPAGANDA ALWAYS BAD? Or only used by bad people or people who are wrong? Are all one sided arguments propaganda? Who is most likely to use propaganda?

Is all advertising propaganda? HOW CAN WE FIGHT POLITICAL MISINFORMATION AND PROPAGANDA? 1. Use Fact Checks! 2. Be skeptical! Be wary of common sense. 3. Avoid hyper-partisan websites and

media. 4. Read reviews of products and services. 5. Check the fine print. 6. Who pays for the information? 7. Who benefits from the information? 8. Is the other side presented? HOW CAN WE FIGHT POLITICAL MISINFORMATION AND

PROPAGANDA? POLITIFACT POLITIFACT POLITIFACT PROPAGANDA

In your journal, create propaganda to persuade Smith to stop giving you HW.

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