Junior Freshman Language Grammar and Grammatical analysis
Junior Freshman Language Grammar and Grammatical analysis Grammar Lecture 8 Pronouns (2) Pronouns 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Personal pronouns Reflexive pronouns Interrogative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Possessive pronouns
Relative pronouns Indefinite pronouns (1) Personal pronouns (continued): (a) object pronouns Object pronouns are used when a pronoun is either a direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition. Object pronouns In English: Most object pronouns are different from subject pronouns, but the same pronouns are used as direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of a preposition. Subject and object pronouns in English
Subject Object 1st person I me 2nd person you you 3rd person he/she/it
him/her/it 1st person we us 2nd person 3rd person you they you them Singular
Plural In French.. As in English, the pronouns used as objects are different from the ones used as subjects. Unlike English, the form of an object pronoun often changes depending on whether it is a direct object, or an object of a preposition. First and second persons singular and plural Subject Direct object Subject
Direct object Singular 1st person 2nd person je tu me te I you me you
Plural 1st person 2nd person nous vous nous vous we you us you Identifying the function of nous and vous can be confusing:
same forms are used as subject and object. both subject and object forms are placed before the verb. Third person singular and plural (him, her, it and them) Subject Direct object Subject Direct object Singular masculine Feminine
il elle le la he, it she, it him, it her, it Plural masculine feminine ils elles
les they them French indirect object pronouns First, make sure that the French verb takes an indirect object. First and second persons singular and plural Subject Indirect object Subject
Indirect object Singular 1st person 2nd person je tu me te I you (to) me (to) you
Plural 1st person 2nd person nous vous nous vous we you (to) us (to) you Third person singular and plural (him, her, it and them)
Direct object Singular masculine Feminine Plural masculine feminine le la les Indirect object People Things
lui leur Direct object Indirect object him, it her, it (to) him (to) her (to) it them
(to) them y y There is only one form of the 3rd person indirect object pronouns referring to things and ideas: y: (1) Are you answering the letter? Yes, I am answering it. (2) Do you obey the laws? Yes, I obey them. Translate He gives his sister the gift He gives her the gift Personal pronouns (continued) Disjunctive (Stressed) pronouns
French stressed pronouns (also known as disjunctive pronouns) are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun that refers to a person. There are 9 forms in French Personal pronouns (continued) Disjunctive (Stressed) pronouns Subjec Direct t object je tu il,elle,o n nous vous ils,elles
Reflexiv Stresse e d me* te* le, la Indirec t object me* te* lui nous vous les
nous vous leur nous vous se me* te* se moi toi lui,elle,s oi nous vous eux,elles
Use of stressed pronouns for emphasis: To highlight or emphasise a pronoun, a common strategy is to double up by the addition of a stressed pronoun. e.g. Subject pronouns: Toi, tu le crois peut-tre mais lui, il ne le croit pas YOU might believe that, but HE doesnt Stressed pronouns: (subject) The stressed subject pronoun copy may equally appear at the end of the clause with the same effect: Tu le crois peut-tre toi, mais il ne le croit pas,
lui. Stressed pronouns: (subject) When third person subject pronouns are highlighted or emphasised, the stressed pronoun alone may, on occasions, be used: HE could do it THEY would know what to say Stressed pronouns: (object) A common strategy is to add a second, stressed pronoun at either the beginning or the end of the clause: He confides in ME (and not in you) HE is known to be innocent
Stressed pronouns standing alone Stressed pronouns are normally used where the pronoun stands alone, or is in a phrase without a verb: Qui est l? Moi (not *je) Qui as-tu vu? Lui (not *il) Reflexive verbs and pronouns A reflexive verb is a verb which is accompanied by a pronoun, called a reflexive pronoun, which serves to reflect the action of the verb back to the subject. Reflexive pronouns Subject Direct
object je me* tu te* il,elle,o le, la n nous nous vous vous ils,elles les Indirect object me* te* lui
Reflexive Stressed nous vous leur nous vous se me* te* se moi toi lui,elle,s oi nous
vous eux,elles Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns are used only with pronominal verbs (les verbes pronominaux). They always agree with the subject of the sentence. Like object pronouns, the reflexive pronoun is placed directly in front of the verb in all tenses except the imperative. e.g. tu te lves lve-toi Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns always agree with their subjects, in all tenses and moods. I will get up
2. We went to bed 3. Are you going to shave? 1. Reflexive verbs are common in French. There are many English expressions that are not reflexive in English, but whose French equivalent is a reflexive verb. to get up to make a mistake to go to bed to stop to wake up to take a walk to be bored to have fun
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