An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 4 Folk and Popular Culture Fish are friends, not food.
Finding Nemo Im just one stomach flu away from my goal weight. The Devil Wears Prada My
Precious Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers We are going to need a bigger boat. Jaws Father
to a murdered son. Husband to a murdered wife. And I will have my vengeance, in this life or the next. Gladiator Want to know how I got these scars?
The Dark Knight Ill be back. The Terminator Hello.
My name is Inigo Montoya. You killed my father. Prepared to die. The Princess Bride May the odds be ever in your favor. Hunger Games
May the force be with you. Star Wars Show me the money!
Terms Culture Traits: The smallest distinctive item of culture. Learned behavior ranging from
language, tools, or games Culture Complex: Individual traits that are functionally interrelated. Culture System: When distinctive places share a culture complex Culture Regions: Areas of the world occupied by people that share recognizable and distinctive cultural traits Culture Realms: are a set of culture regions showing related culture complexes and landscapes.
More Terms to remember (Chapter 1) Environmental determinism Possibilism Culture Hearths Diffusion Expansion diffusion
Contagious Hierarchical diffusion Stimulus diffusion Relocation diffusion Even More Terms Mentifacts: the abstract beliefs passed from one generation to the next as part of the Ideological subsystem of culture Artifacts: are material objects used to fill our basic needs, part of the technological
subsystem Sociofacts: define the social organization of a group and include all relationships including family, economic, military, religious, etc. Introduction This chapter looks at material culture including survival items like food, shelter, and clothing, and also leisure activities
such as arts and recreation. Non-material culture such as religion, beliefs, language, etc will be discussed later. Habit vs custom Habit is an act preformed repeatedly by an individual Custom is a repeated act by a group so much that it becomes a characteristic
Folk vs. Popular Culture Folk culture is traditionally practiced by small groups that live in isolated rural areas. Popular culture is found in large societies that share certain habits. Practice by more people that folk cultures Key Issue 1: Origins and
Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures Where do folk and popular cultures originate and diffuse? Two basic factors help explain the spatial differences between popular and folk cultures. The process of origin The pattern of diffusion
Origin of folk and popular cultures A. Cultural traits originate at a HEARTH, or center of innovation. B. Folk culture often have an anonymous hearth, originate from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators. C. Popular culture is usually a product of developed countries. North America, Western
Europe, and Japan are common popular cultural hearths. Fast food, and music are good examples Origin of Folk Music A. B. C.
Chinese Legend says music was invented in 2697 BC by a guy who cut bamboo poles that would make sound like a phoenix bird Folk songs usually have anonymous authors, they are transmitted orally, are often modified, and tell stories of everyday life that is familiar to the people. Folk customs may have multiple origins by groups that dont have
communications with each other. Country music is an example Origin of Country Music Fig. 4-1: U.S. country music has four main hearths, or regions of origin: southern Appalachia, central Tennessee and Kentucky, the Ozark-Ouachita uplands, and north-central Texas. Origins of Popular Music A.
B. Popular music is written by specific people for the purpose of being sold to a large audience. Popular music originated along 28th street in NYC to produce music for variety shows in Western Europe and USA. Pluggers pounded out songs for publishers. The area became known as Tin Pan Ally. TPA
moved several times before recorded music became more popular than sheet music. Tin Pan Alley and Popular Music Fig. 4-2: Writers and publishers of popular music were clustered in Tin Pan Alley in New York City in the early twentieth century. The area later moved north from 28th Street to Times Square. A Mental Map of Hip Hop
Hip Hop begins in NYC in the 70s and spreads to other large cities in the 80s. Lots of Hip Hop is place oriented. Fig. 4-3: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed. Diffusion of Folk and Popular Culture. A. B.
Popular culture usually spreads by Hierarchical diffusion from hearths (or nodes) of innovation. Examples include Hollywood for film, Madison Ave for Advertising, NYC, Paris, Milan for fashion Folk Culture spreads slowly usually through migration (relocation diffusion) rather than from modern methods such as electronics.
Two Examples Questions to Answer for Notes Describe and explain the Relocation diffusion of the Amish 2. Describe and explain the Hierarchical diffusion of Soccer and explain how it transformed from a folk sport to a popular sport (globalization)
1. Amish Settlements in the U.S. Fig. 4-4: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U.S. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? Influence of the physical environment
Shoes. Fur lined boots in arctic Wooden shoes in the Netherlands Distinctive food preferences Environment determines what foods can be grown People take what is available and modify and use it based on cultural preferences. Taboos and Attractions (know some examples, Rubenstein 123-125)
Hog Production and Food Cultures Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist. Folk Housing & The Environment Folk housing Determined by available resources and social preferences.
Different places use same material, but orientation and form of the houses are different. Examples: Madagascar, Laos, Thailand. (ALSO Feng Shui) for orientation and China for form. House Types in Western China Fig. 4-8: Four communities in western China all have distinctive house types.
Isolation Promotes Cultural Diversity Himalayan art Different groups of people in the Himalayas developed different art based on their religion and views of the environment.
Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Animists They also display unique forms of dance, music, crafts, and architecture. Beliefs and Folk House Forms Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions
Sacred spaces Fig. 4-5: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains. Home Locations in Southeast Asia Fig. 4-7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).
U.S. Folk Housing Early colonists built vernacular houses, based on tradition but without formal plans Several different Hearths developed Northern or New England French influence in Canada and other French settlements Other influences from Dutch, Germans (Dutch doors) Middle Atlantic
Ethnically diverse, developed the log cabin, four over four and I house Lower Chesapeake Built from a mix of many influences, one type is the shotgun house with roots in Africa Interior and western Sod, balloon frame, Spanish Adobe, and central-hall are Diffusion of House Types
in U.S. Fig. 4-9: Distinct house types originated in three main source areas in the U.S. and then diffused into the interior as migrants moved west. Diffusion of New England House Types Fig. 4-10: Four main New England house types of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries diffused westward as settlers migrated.
Key Issue 3: Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed? Popular food customs Consumption of Snack foods and alcohol are part of Pop Culture but vary within regions of MDCs Snack Foods:
Bourbon in Upper South Tequila in Southwest Canadian Whiskey in the North Southeast has low consumption Consumption depends on two
factors: High income National advertising Alcohol Preferences in the U.S. Wine Wines are produced all over, but the
type of wine show regional preferences or characteristics of the environment. Wine Production per Year Fig. 4-13: The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs. Rapid diffusion of clothing styles
Clothes are not subject to physical barriers such as Mountains. Clothes often reflect occupation Clothes often reflect income In the last several years more info between LDCs and MDCs has led to the sharing of clothing styles. Some traditional clothing is kept to preserve the past or attract tourists Diffusion of Jeans
Diffusion of Jeans (you should have 4 facts on your worksheet) Popular housing styles Housing since the 1940s has reflected changing fashion rather than function.
Different times periods have made certain house styles popular 40s and 50s minimal traditional 50s and 60s Ranch house 50s -70s split level 50s-70s Contemporary Late 60s Shed Neo-Eclectic (Since 1960)
Since 1960s Neo (new) styles of old forms Mansard Neo-Tudor Neo-French Ne0-Colonial
U.S. House Types, 1945 1990 Fig. 4-11: Several variations of the modern style were dominant from the 1940s into the 1970s. Since then, neo-eclectic styles have become the dominant type of house construction in the U.S. U.S. House Types by Region What
examples have you seen? Why style is your house? Fig. 4-1-1: Small towns in different regions of the eastern U.S. have different combinations of five main house types. Diffusion of television
Rapid diffusion of TVs in the USA 1945 1949
1951 1959 10,000 1 million 10 million 50 million Diffusion to other countries 1950 85% of TVs were in the USA 1990s 900 million TVs and less than 25% in USA
Four levels of TV countries. Everyone has one, most everyone has one, exist but not widely used, and very few have one. Diffusion of TV, 19541999 Fig. 4-14: Television has diffused widely since the 1950s, but
some areas still have low numbers of TVs per population. Diffusion of the internet Following a similar path Initially grows rapidly in of TVs
MDCs Spreads to LDCs where it is adopted based on financial capability of each region. Distribution of Internet Hosts Fig. 4-15: The U.S. had two-thirds of the worlds internet hosts in 2002. Diffusion of internet service is likely to follow the pattern of TV diffusion, but the rate of this diffusion may differ.
Facebook Key Issue 4: Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems? Impacts of the Globalization of Popular Culture Threats to folk culture
Loss of traditional values Foreign media dominance Environmental impacts of popular culture Modifying nature Uniform landscapes
Negative environmental impact Threat #1: Loss of traditional values Adoption of western clothing styles by business and government leaders in LDCs Business suits are seen as a symbol of authority and leadership and has
been adopted by the world Middle Eastern countries often battle between the influence of western Change in Traditional Role of Women Many folk cultures hold women to be subservient of
men. Popular culture tends to empower women and increase the desire to have a greater role in society. Legal equality and the opportunity for economic and social advancement outside the home are accepted in the west even if it is not always the case. The negative impact of
Threat #2: Foreign media Imperialism Leaders of LDCs often feel western customs brought in by television threaten traditional ways. USA, England, and Japan dominate worldwide TV.
Only 6% of shows in Japan are foreign made 83% in Uganda. LDCs view western TV themes of upward mobility, freedom for women, glorification of youth, and stylized violence as negative influences on their people. Cultural Imperialism: Practice of Western control of the
News News is dominated by the USA and Great Britain Poor countries purchase stories and images from the AP (associated press) and Reuters. African and Asian governments criticize western news for not giving a balanced and well
rounded view. They focus on the sensational and not the practical. Government control of media In the USA TV stations are owned privately. Other parts of the world Governments own the Stations, thus control what is broadcast. Even in Europe, stations are owned by
governments. BBC for example Governments have used TVs for propaganda and to limit what is seen. Many parts of Asia and the Middle East dont allow outside stations and have outlawed satellite dishes. Environmental Impact #1: Modifying nature Popular
culture can significantly modify or control the environment Folk cultures come FROM the environment. Popular sees the environment as something to modify to enhance participation in an activity or to promote the sale of a product Golf Courses in Metropolitan
Areas Fig. 4-16: The 50 best-served and worst-served metropolitan areas in terms of golf holes per capita, and areas that are above and below average. Environmental Impact #2: Uniform landscapes Promoters of popular culture want a uniform appearance to generate
greater consumption Fast food example Fast food is the SAME everywhere. Locally they may be slightly different Physical expression of uniform popular culture diffused form USA (Advertising)
Diffusion of popular cultural Uniform Landscapes Environmental Impact #3: Negative environmental impact Popular culture can lead to the depletion of
resources Need for energy Fashion demands Animal consumption is ineffective Popular culture also can lead to the pollution of the landscape.
Popular culture often produces an abundance of waste in the form of solid waste, liquid waste and various types of gasses Technology and popular culture can produce waste, however it can also clean it up through recycling and other controls on the production of waste.
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