Key SEA framing issues Power demand and power trade development in the LMB and GMS SEA Team Purpose This presentation aims to illustrate the changing character of the demand for power within the LMB and where the mainstream dams fit within the mix of electricity generation LMB Selected indicators 2004 Cambodia Population (million) (2004) GDP (current USD billion) GDP per capita (current USD) FDI (USD million) FDI/capita (USD) Electricity use per capita (kWh) Energy use per capita (kgoe) Fuelwood share in total primary energy
49% Source: Economics of energy integration , ADB, 2008 Regional GMS energy issues Energy poverty widespread Energy vulnerability high and rising Energy productivity and policy Source: Building a sustainable energy future the GMS, ADB 2008 High economic growth in the LMB 1985-2005 Source: Building a sustainable energy future the GMS, ADB 2008 Significant differences in electricity consumption Country Per capita household consumption (Kwh) Share of residential sector in total electricity consumption (%) Cambodia
29 52.0 Lao PDR 95 53.0 Thailand 409 21.0 Vietnam 242 42.0 Source: Building a sustainable energy future the GMS, ADB 2008 Growing demand for power Not consistent between countries All projects in Cambodia and Laos, so will be generating more than they can consume Mainstream project high proportion of power generated will be exported
If projects are planned on basis of export, they must have secure markets, Anticipated markets are at moment are Thailand, Vietnam, China Uncertainty of markets in short-term Thailand in economic crisis and may be some years before want to import more power Already some projects giving anticipated unit cost prices to break even which are well above market prices e.g. Sambor and Vietnam Vietnam in process of multi-year power market reform over many years, e.g. competitive generation by 2005 - 2014 and competitive retail power markets by 2022 China moving towards greater self-provision of energy SO there are uncertainties in use of this capacity from mainstream dams and when they are going to come Significant differences in hydropower potential (MWyr/yr) Cambodia Lao PDR Thailand Viet Nam Regional total (GMS)
928 1,392 23,571 Small 650 1,015 406 812 5,928 Total 4,176 11,919 5,974 9,164 127,403
Source: Economics of energy integration , ADB, 2008 Limited power trade flows between LMB countries in 2005 (GWh) Exports Cambodia Lao PDR - 74 74 Lao PDR - 2,628 Thailand 2,033 Viet Nam 521
Imports Cambodia Thailand - RoW Total Viet Nam RoW 3,234 - Total 5,267 521 2,628 Source: Economics of energy integration , ADB, 2008 3,234 -
Regional power demand Lao 700 MW generated now with 60 MW imported from Thailand 7,000 MW by 2020 90% of 2020 will come from Hydropower 1500 MW of 2020 would come from mainstream dams Domestic demand is 450 MW by 2020, so only about 7% of installed capacity But one major energy consuming project mine might have requirement for 60 MW Cambodia power demand 13 MW generated now 90% of power generated from imported fuels Target to reduce dependence on fuel wood from 80% of population to 52% by 2015 Target to increase domestic provision of electricity from to 20% of population to 70% Potential 10,000 MW from large hydropower projects, plus 3,000 from mini-hydro 3,580 MW of 2020 would come from mainstream dams (Sambor and Stung Treng) But most of this is destined for export Projected growth in power demand in LMB 2005-2025 Source: Economics of energy integration , ADB, 2008 (base case projection)
LMB Regional Energy Story Energy Demand Future Coal/thermal? tributaries? nuclear? gas? mainstream hydropower? Oil? biomass renewable? RoW Projected energy demand Existing Capacity coal/ thermal gas Tributaries Oil biomass RoW *RoW = Rest of World Projected energy demand with
demand management Supply time Demand delayed through demand management & efficiency measures Hydropower in GMS power demand to 2025 Source: Economics of energy integration , ADB, 2008 (base case projection) Projected power trade with integrated power markets 2025 (GWh) Exports Cambodia Lao PDR - 40 15 Lao PDR 22 -
50 Thailand 9,482 42,458 Viet Nam 3,612 25,988 Imports Cambodia RoW Total 13,116 Thailand Viet Nam RoW
- - Source: Economics of energy integration , ADB, 2008 (based on IRM modeling) *Thailand is projected to import 139,385 GWh from Myanmar by 2025 What about the crisis? Source: World Bank 2009 e expected f - forecast u e td e n e h tt c e o in ro b te n
e h o gi e e m o xe ic n p n g e e r e ct rso e g w p d ye t w sci
h ite in al h ct t ly to h w h rh e e ? r e gl A re o n gi e b d o g al
m rn e o (o cr b w o e te n sh t Changing economic environment? Mainstream dams Provide 11.5% of installed capacity by 2020 9.3% of power produced in the LMB by 2020 60 GW hrs annually of the 644 GWhrs per annum in LMB by 2020 Conditions of BOT, 25 30 year handover in which government would have the capacity to manage, but there would be major maintenance and replacements costs
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