Kingdom Protista " The Catch-All Kingdom" Protozoans

Kingdom Protista " The Catch-All Kingdom" Protozoans

Kingdom Protista The catch-all kingdom Two major groups: 1.Protozoa 2.Algae

Protozoa Characteristics Single celled Microscopic Move independently named for mechanism of movement

65,000 species Most heterotrophic Free-living or parasitic All capable of asexual reproduction through binary or multiple fission Some reproduce sexually through conjugation

Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction Binary fission

Classification Currently based on how they move:

Pseudopodia Cilia Flagella No appendages/limited movement

Scientists are reviewing this by looking at phylogeny and genetic studies 4 Phyla of Protozoans Sarcodina

Ciliophora Zoomastigina Sporozoa Specialisation Protists show the beginnings of specialisation and

adaptation Physiological & structural mechanisms such as eyespots Form cysts Multiple nuclei Complicated, multi-staged life-cycles (eg malaria) Multiple hosts

Evolution of Protista

Prokaryotes 3.5 billion years ago Eukaryotes 1.5 billion years ago Protozoan thought to be descendents of first eukaryotes Endosymbiotic Theory

Endosymbiotic Theory Phylums Sarcodina 40,000 species

Amoebas Pseudopodia most move Cytoplasmic streaming Eat other protists Forams produce a shell (test) made from CaCO3 sink to bottom and make limestone and chalk deposits

Radiolaria (diatoms) produce a scaffold-like test made from SiO2 Entamoeba histolytica amoebic dysentery

Phylum Ciliophora

8,000 species Move using cilia Pellicle, oral groove, gullet, macronucleus, micronucleus Paramecium Phylum Zoomastigina

2,500 species Move using flagella Most free-living Cause disease zooflagellates African trypanosomiasis sleeping sickness tsetse fly

Chagas Disease kissing bug Leishmaniasis sand fly giardiasis The tsetse fly sleeping sickness vector

The Kissing Bug T.Cruzi Chagas disease Leishmaniasis

Giardia Giardia lamblia Phylum Sporozoa

6,000 species Carried in blood Cause disease like toxoplasmosis and malaria

Know malaria cycle!!!!

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