Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we ...

Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we ...

Gresham College Lecture series: Look it up yourself! A History of the Dictionary From dictionary user to amateur lexicographer Possibilities of on-line searches Costas Gabrielatos (Lancaster University) 23 March 2009

Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. Samuel Johnson (Statement made April 18, 1775, quoted in Boswell's Life of Johnson) How will the information be used? Comprehension Production

Do you know this word? What does knowing a word involve? To know a word: Form Written form Spelling

Spoken form Pronunciation Stress Symbols vs. audio chagrin sh or tsh chagrin or chagrin

/grn / (BrE) /grn/ (AmE) To know a word: Grammar (a) Part of speech Countable/uncountable (for nouns) Not independent of meaning experience [LDOCE]

Derivatives extend (verb) extendability / extendibility / extensibility (noun) extendable / extendible / extensible (adjective) To know a word: Grammar (b) To know a word:

Meaning Sense(s) Connotations The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online http://www.ldoceonline.com Image

reredos To know a word: Meaning: specialised words collateralized debt obligation InvestorWords, www.investorwords.com To know a word:

The lexical company a word keeps stale bread rancid butter sour milk To know a word: The lexical company a word keeps The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online

http://www.ldoceonline.com To know a word: Use Contexts of use general/specialised heart attack (acute) myocardial infarction archaic/formal/informal/colloquial/slang

offspring - minor - child - kid - brat Frequency In what contexts? To know a word: Meaning in relation to other words Synonyms / Antonyms expand

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary http://www.merriam-webster.com To know a word: Etymology (the history of a word) Encarta ahttp://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx

World Wide Words (Michael Quinion), www.worldwidewords.org To know a word: A holistic view: examples Examples can demonstrate most of the aspects of knowing a word. What does this word mean? What does this word do? The more examples, the better our understanding

patterns and frequency What kind of examples? Whose examples? Prescription or description? 'When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather scornful tone,' it means just what I choose it to mean, neither more nor less.' 'The question is,' said Alice, 'whether you can

make words mean so many different things.' 'The question is,' said Humpty Dumpty, 'which is to be master - that's all.' Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There, Lewis Carroll, 1871 Sources of examples Corpora British National Corpus (BNC), 100 million words

http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html The web as a corpus WebCorp http://www.webcorp.org.uk egregious Conspicuously bad or offensive. Often of mistakes, extremely and noticeably bad.

An egregious mistake, failure, problem etc is extremely bad and noticeable. Extraordinary in some bad way; glaring; flagrant: an egregious mistake; an egregious liar. Conspicuous ; especially : conspicuously bad : flagrant egregious

Conspicuously bad or offensive. Often of mistakes, extremely and noticeably bad. An egregious mistake, failure, problem etc is extremely bad and noticeable. Extraordinary in some bad way; glaring; flagrant: an egregious mistake; an egregious liar. Conspicuous ; especially : conspicuously bad : flagrant

egregious Conspicuously bad or offensive. Often of mistakes, extremely and noticeably bad. An egregious mistake, failure, problem etc is extremely bad and noticeable. Extraordinary in some bad way; glaring; flagrant: an egregious mistake; an egregious liar. Conspicuous ; especially : conspicuously bad :

flagrant egregious Conspicuously bad or offensive. Often of mistakes, extremely and noticeably bad. An egregious mistake, failure, problem etc is extremely bad and noticeable. Extraordinary in some bad way; glaring; flagrant: an

egregious mistake; an egregious liar. Conspicuous ; especially : conspicuously bad : flagrant egregious in the BNC 36 instances

Action/behaviour/event/result etc. (15) Person/organisation etc. (12) Mistake/error etc. (6) Object (2) Other (1)

Types of dictionaries General - alphabetical General - thematic (concepts) Thesaurus Terminological Pronunciation Collocations (lexical patterns) Pictorial Encyclopaedic

Possibilities of online searches The ultimate reference source (?) Free Quick and easy comparison of information Lexical journeys Primary research

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