The Future of Refrigerants: Where Do We Go From Here? Mike Thompson Global Leader of Refrigerant Strategy Trane, Ingersoll Rand, Thermo King Ingersoll Rand 2012 Options For HVAC Refrigerants Fluorocarbons Ozone Depleters (Montreal Protocol) Class 1 High ODP CFCs R-11 R-12 R113 R-500 Natural Refrigerants Non- Ozone Depleters (Kyoto Protocol) Class 2 Low ODP HCFCs R-22 R-123 Higher GWP
R-134a R-410A R-407C Lower GWP R-32 R-152a Propane Butane CO2 Ammonia Ingersoll Rand 2012 Timeline of Refrigerant Usage Montreal Protocol Signed All CFC production Stopped (R-11,R-12) in developed countries 1990 2000 Kyoto Protocol Signed No new R-22 for service No new equipment with R-123 in developed countries No new R-123 for service in developed countries, no HCFCs in new equipment
in developing countries No CFCs for developing countries 2010 2020 No automotive use of R-134a in Europe No new equipment with R-22 Today 2030 No HCFC production in developing countries 2040 2050 Continued use of recycled R-22, R-123 for developing countries Continued use of recycled R-123 Continued use of recycled R-22 Continued use of recycled CFCs Note: Included in the use of recycled refrigerants is also the use of stockpiled supplies of the refrigerant produced before the phase out date. In addition, there is no restriction on the importation of recycled and recovered supplies of refrigerants.
Ingersoll Rand 2012 Current Refrigerant Pricing January 2011 *Source: WWW.r22.org Ingersoll Rand 2012 Ingersoll Rand 2012 Kyoto Protocol Greenhouse Gas Coverage Six (6) Gases Carbon Dioxide -- CO2 Methane -- CH4 Nitrous Oxide -- N2O Hydrofluorocarbons -- HFCs Perfluorocarbons -- PFCs
Sulfur hexafluoride -- SF6 Base Period 1990 for CO2 , CH4 , and N2O 1990 or 1995 for HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 Ingersoll Rand 2012 European HFC Restrictions Denmark Austria HFC ban on HVAC equipment, appliances and cars in 2008, except if factory charge is <20kg of refrigerant Switzerland
General HFC ban in 2006 HFC ban on HVAC equipment in 2007, except if the factory refrigerant charge is <10kg for cooling applications or <50 kg for heat pump applications Domestic Refrigeration HFC Ban - 2003 Air Conditioners HFC Ban - 2005 Mobile Air Conditioning HFC Ban 2008 F-Gases Directive on car air conditioning No new vehicles containing F-gases, with a GWP greater than 150, in 2011 Prohibit sale of vehicles containing F-gases, with a GWP greater than 150, in 2017 Ingersoll Rand 2012 Ingersoll Rand 2012 Country GHG Cap & Trade Legislation Japan
New Zealand Cap & Trade (Legislation in process) Six gases including HFCs All sectors Australia Cap & Trade (Legislation in process) GHG emissions reduction target of 60-80% by 2050 Will start trial cap & trade program fall of 2009 Govt pressure on GHGs, including HFCs, against industries desires Five gases Separate HFC regulation (25% below 2000 levels by 2020) HFC regulations begin in 2011 European Union (27 countries) - 2008 CO2 only cap and trade, utilities & large industrials HFCs under regulatory pressure Ingersoll Rand 2012 US Legislative Efforts
American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (aka: Waxman-Markey Bill) Uses the average of 2004, 2005, 2006 production as a baseline for HFC production (weighted HCFC and HFC volumes) 10% below average in 2012 33% below average in 2020 75% below average in 2030 85% below average in 2033 US State Department Proposal to UNEP Reduce to 2005 levels by 2014 20% reduction by 2017
30% reduction by 2020 50% reduction by 2025 70% reduction by 2029 Developing countries to follow developed countries by 10 years Ingersoll Rand 2012 Balance of Environmental Issues Minimal Ozone Depletion (ODP) Minimal Global Warming potential (GWP) Best delivered efficiency (part and full load) Short atmospheric life
Lowest possible leakage rate Ingersoll Rand 2012 Environmental Impact of Refrigerants Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Global Warming Potential (GWP) 1 12000 0.8 10000 0.7 GWP (CO2= 1.0) O D P (R -1 1 = 1 .0 ) 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 8000 6000 4000
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 ODP (relative to R-11) 0.0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 GWP (relative to CO2) J. M. Calm and G. C. Hourahan, Refrigerant Data Summary, Engineered Systems, 18(11):74-88, November 2001 (based on 1998 WMO and 2001 IPCC assessments) JMC 2001 Ingersoll Rand 2012 Chiller Operating Pressure 310.0 Condenser (100 F) Operating Pressure (psig) 270.0 230.0 OffLine ( 72F) Evaporator (38F) 190.0
150.0 110.0 70.0 30.0 -10.0 R-11 R-123 R-12 R-134a R-22 R-410A Ingersoll Rand 2012 Chiller Emissions Study Number of Trane R-123 CenTraVacs 2768 Total Pounds of Charge 3,547,612 lbs Total Pounds of Charge Added 16,229 lbs/yr Annualized Total Loss Rate 0.4575 %
Trane 1997 Survey Results Study corroborated in Impact on Global Ozone and Climate From Use and Emission of (HCFC-123) By Calm, Wuebbles and Jain Ingersoll Rand 2012 What Is Important Over the Life of a Chiller? Cost of Energy (94.5%) First Cost of Chiller (5.18%) Cost of Initial Charge Of Refrigerant (0.25%) Refrigerant Added Over 30 years (0.04%) Ingersoll Rand 2012 The Future Emissions Energy Efficiency Focusing on Emissions and Efficiency is fundamental to doing whats right Ingersoll Rand 2012 Options For HVAC Refrigerants Fluorocarbons Ozone Depleters (Montreal Protocol) Class 1 High ODP CFCs GWP ODP
GWP GWP GWP Lower GWP R-32 R-152a Propane Butane CO2 Ammonia -Toxicity Concerns -Efficiency Concerns -Cost Concerns Ingersoll Rand 2012 Summary All fluorocarbon refrigerants in use today are under legislative jeopardy The balanced approach to refrigerant selection is the best way to protect the environment
Ozone Depletion Global Warming Energy Efficiency Short atmospheric life Low pressure (low tendency for leakage) Chiller selection should focus on: High Energy Efficiency Minimal leakage rates Superior technical design Ingersoll Rand 2012
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