Language Learners' Interaction - SEAMEO REGIONAL TRAINING CENTER

Language Learners' Interaction - SEAMEO REGIONAL TRAINING CENTER

Language Learners' Interaction and the Production of Modified Output Do Thi Quy Thu Hue University, College of Foreign Languages Vietnam 1 1. Introduction Comprehensible Output Hypothesis: necessity of opportunities for NNSs to produce comprehensible output in SLA learners need to be pushed into making their output more precise, coherent, and appropriate Swain (1985) 2 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 1. Introduction

Previous studies investigating Swains hypothesis: collect data mostly from NS/NNS interactions (e.g., Pica, 1988; Linnell, 1996; Nobuyoshi & Ellis, 1993) not consider the comparison between NNS/NNS and NS/NNS interactions (except for Varonis & Gass, 1985, 1994; Pica et al., 1996) Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 2. Research questions Based on Pica et al.s study (1996) and Iwashitas study (2001), the study investigated NNS/NNS vs. NS/NNS interactions and 1. Opportunities for modified output through interactional moves 2. Types of interactional moves provided to other interlocutors 3. Production of modified output in response to interactional moves. 4 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011

Hypothesis Hypothesis Prediction 1.Opportunities for modified output NNS/NNS dyads NS/NNS dyads 2.Proportions of interactional moves NNS/NNS dyads NS/NNS dyads NNSs NSs 3.Production of modified output (MO) 5 NNS/NNS dyads < NS/NNS dyads Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 3. Methodology

3.1. Subjects 15 NNSs of English, 5 NSs of English: 5 NS/NNS dyads and 5 NNS/NNS dyads 3.2. Communicative tasks One-way information gap tasks adapted from related studies (see, e.g., Pica et al., 1996; Iwashita, 2001) 3.3. Data collection procedures 20 audio-recordings: 10 dyads performing 2 communication tasks 6 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 3. Methodology 3.4. Data transcription and analysis 7 Data transcribed and coded for linguistic features: interaction moves : confirmation checks and

clarification requests types of modified outputs: lexical modifications and syntactic modifications Data (seeanalysed samples)using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 4. Results and Discussion Table 1. Summary of results Hypothesis 1.Opportunities for modified output 2.Proportions of interactional moves 3.Production of modified output (MO) Prediction Supporte d?

NNS/NNS dyads NS/NNS No dyads NNS/NNS dyads NS/NNS Yes dyads Yes NNSs NSs NNS/NNS dyads < NS/NNS Yes dyads (see ANOVA test_level of significance) 8 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 4.1. Hypothesis 1 Table 2 Interactional moves in c-units which provided opportunities to produce MO NNS/NNS dyads Other c-units CC and CR* NS/NNS dyads Other c-units

CC and CR Task 1 n % Task 2 n Total n % 380 95 80 20 360 120 75 25

740 215 77.1 22.9 405 100 80.2 19.8 415 160 72.2 27.8 820 260 75.9 24.1 * CC, confirmation check; CR, clarification request 9

Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, % 4.2. Hypothesis 2 Table 3 Proportion of CC and CR in NNS/NNS and NS/NNS dyads Task 1 n NNS/NNS dyads CC CR NS/NNS dyads CC CR % Task 2 n % Total

n 60 35 63.2 36.8 70 50 75 25 130 85 60.5 39.5 70 30 80.2 19.8 9

160 5.3 94.7 79 190 29.4 70.6 (Additional notice from the 2 tasks in NS/NNS dyads: Task 1: NSs: information providers; NNSs: information receivers Task 2: NSs: information receivers, NNSs: information providers) 10 % Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. Hypothesis 2 1. NNS1: There is a teapot on the shelf. NNS2: Teapot on the shelf? (CC) NNS1: Aah, in the first layer. NNS2: First layer? (CC) NNS1: Yeah, the bottom one, the bottom layer. There're three glasses on the shelf, the top layer.

NNS2: Ok, in the top layer. Three glasses? (CC) NNS1: Yes. And bottle, a bottle on the cupboard. NNS2: Ok. Excerpt 1. Example of frequent use of CC by NNSs. 11 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 Hypothesis 2 2. NNS: At the back. And next to the cat, on the carpet, we will see a magazine on the carpet. NS: Is it on the left of the cat? (CR) NNS: On the left, magazine, ok? NS: Ok. NNS: And on the right of the cat, you will see the...next to the sofa...you will see the...the lamp on the table, the round table. NS: Where is the table? (CR) NNS: It's behind. NS: The lamp is on the table? (CR) NNS: Yep. On the table, and a book is next to the lamp. Excerpt 2. Examples of frequent use of CR by NSs.

12 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 4.3 Hypothesis 3 Table 4 Production of modified output in NNS/NNS and dyads Task 1 Task 2 n % n % NNS/NNS dyads 20 20 25 20.8 Modified output 80 80 95 79.2 Other responses

NS/NNS dyads Modified output 40 40 60 37.5 Other 60 60 100 62.5 responses 13 NS/NNS Total n % 45 175 20.5 79.5

100 160 38.5 61.5 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. Hypothesis 3 Modified output: NS/NNS >NNS/NNS NNSs modifications : syntactic type NSs: syntactic + lexical NNSs syntactic modifications: simple, short, mostly repeated from other interlocutors' prior utterances. 14 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011

Hypothesis 3 3. NNS1: There's a saucepan in the cooker. NNS2: On the cooker? NNS1: Aah, on the cooker (syntactic modification) NNS2: Which side, left or right? NNS1: Uhm...on the cooker. NNS2: Just on the cooker? NNS1: Yeah, just put it on the cooker. (syntactic modification) NNS2: Ok. Excerpt 3. Examples of modifications used by NNSs. 15 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 Hypothesis 3 4. NS: NNS: NS: side, NNS: the next shelf, on the left, teapot

teapot? Teapot, teapot has a handle on the that's on the left (lexical modification) ok, I got it. Excerpt 4. Examples of modifications used by NSs. 16 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 5. Conclusions and Implications Opportunities for modifications: NNS/NNS ~ NNS/NS. CR >CC in NS/NNS interactions: NSs: CR >CC in interactional moves. NNSs: mainly CC Production of modified output: NS/NNS >NNS/NNS interactions.

NSs responses: rich in lexical and structural modifications not a particularly rich context to aid learners in L2 learning, i.e. to produce modified output 17 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 Implications Provide models of L2 morphosyntax in building L2 grammar assist L2 acquisition Identify, adapt or create suitable communicative tasks for classroom interactions Provide opportunities for learners to modify interactions through negotiation. 18

Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 References Duff, P.A. (1986). Another look at interlanguage talk: talking task to task. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 147-181). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Gass, S. (2003). Input and interaction. In C. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224255). London: Blackwell. Gass, S., Varonis, E. (1985). Task variation and non-native/non-native negotiation of meaning. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 149-161). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Gass, S., Varonis, E. (1986). Sex differences in NNS/NNS interactions. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 327-351). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Gass, S., Varonis, E. (1994). Input, interaction and second language production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 283302. Iwashita, N. (2001). The effect of learner proficiency on interactional moves and modified output in nonnative-nonnative interaction in Japanese as a foreign language. System, 29, 267-287. Iwashita, N. (1999). Tasks and learners output in nonnative-nonnative interaction. In K. Kanno (Ed.), Studies on the Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language (pp. 31-52). Amsterdam: John Benjamin. Linnell, J. (1996). Can negotiation provide a context for learning syntax in a second language? Working Paper in Educational Linguistics, 12, 83-102. Nobuyoshi, J., Ellis, R. (1993). Focused communication tasks and second language acquisition. English Language Teaching Journal, 47, 203-210. Pica, T. (1988). Interlanguage adjustments as an outcome of NS-NNS negotiated interaction. Language Learning, 28, 45-73. Pica, T., Holliday, L., Lewis , N., Morgenthaler, L. (1989).Comprehensible output as an outcome of linguistic demands on the learner. Studies in Second language Acquisition, 11(1), 63-90. Pica, T., Lincoln-Porter, F., Paninos, D., Linnel, J. (1996). Language learners' interaction: How does it address the input, output and feedback needs of L2 learners?. TESOL Quarterly 30(1), 59-84. Shehadeh, A. (1999). Non-native speakers' production of modified comprehensible output and second language learning. Language Learning 49(4), 627-675. Swain, M., 1985. Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its

development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds), Input in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 235-253), Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Watcyn-Jones, P. (1984). Penguin functional English. Great Britain: Penguin Books. Yamaguchi, Y., (1994). Negative Evidence and Japanese as a Foreign Language Acquisition. Ms, University of Western Australia, Perth. 19 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011 Thank you 20 Thu Do_International TESOL Conference, Sept. 2011

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