LAST LESSON TODAY: - EXAM PAPER OVERVIEW - 20 minutes family revision - 20 minutes methods revision

EXAMS Paper 1: Tuesday May 17 Paper 2: Tuesday May 24th th

Paper 1 Methods In Context

Education 1 hr 30 minutes 1 minute and a half a mark

MARKS 2 2 6

10 20 20 Paper 2

Family Methods 1 hr 30 minutes

1 minute and a half a mark MARKS 4 16

2 2 6 10 20


WORK STATION ONE Separate the arguments onto two columns: 1.Segregated conjugal roles 2.Joint conjugal roles Then fill in your table with the names and a

one sentence summary Domestic division of labour SEGREGATED CONJUGAL ROLES JOINT CONJUGAL ROLES

TALCOTT PARSONS (FUNCTIONALIST) For Parsons womens role in the family is an expressive role. What he meant by this is a womans familial role is to provide care, love, affection, security and all the necessary emotional support a family member might need.

In contrast for Parsons men have an instrumental role as the bread winner. Such a role is very arduous and is such a stressful, anxious challenge that it can cause men to breakdown. Therefore a womans function is to relieve this burden or tension from the mens shoulders by providing love and understanding as well as continuing to be the

primary carer irrespective of their own circumstances. FEMINISTS The division of labour outlined by Parsons is not natural. Instead Parsons roles are simply patriarchal and benefit men.

Ann Oakley The Sociology of Housework (1974) Seventy per cent of the women interviewed came out as dissatisfied in an overall assessment of feelings expressed about housework during

the course of a long indepth interview. Monotony is a common experience. Three quarters of the sample report it, and eighty percent of these are dissatisfied with housework. Loneliness is a frequent complaint. Most of the women who are dissatisfied with housework report a low level of social interaction with

others. Another disadvantage is the low status of the housewife role; the low prestige and trivialization of housework implied in the phrase just a housewife.

Jonathan GERSHUNY 1994 (The Domestic Labour Revolution) His research in showed again that they key development in bringing more equality in housework was whether the women went out to work or not and also how much work she did and how much she

earned . Women who worked and earned more money did less housework and the housework was more likely to be shared (because of her raised status in the family). For example: Wives who did not work did 83% of the domestic work Wives who worked did 73% of the domestic work

Couples whose parents shared the housework were more likely to do this themselves. Ferri and Smith (Parenting in the 90s)

Working women did NOT change their role in the home of 1589 33 year old fathers and mothers fewer than 4% of the fathers took the main responsibility for childcare. YOUNG AND WILLMOTT (1973)

In the early 70s, Young and Willmott conducted a large scale social survey in which 1,928 people were interviewed in Greater London and the outer metropolitan area. The results formed the basis of their book, The symmetrical family. This family is characterised by the separation of the nuclear family form the

extended family. The trade union of women is disbanded and the husband returns to the family circle. Life is largely home centred, particularly when children are young, leisure is mainly home based (watching television). The conjugal bond is strong, the husband and wife increasingly share their work. Conjugal roles although not

the same wives still have the responsibility for raising children are symmetrical. They are similar in terms of contributions made by each spouse to the running of the household. They share chores, decisions etc. Gillian Dunne

Analysed lesbian couples she looked at 37 lesbian couple with children and found that because the partners were both female they were more likely to share housework, give equal importance to both partners careers and share child care because there was no pressure to perform gender roles as

there is with a man and a woman Mary Boulton (1983) Found that fewer than 20% of husbands had a major role in childcare arguing that Willmott and Young overstated mens

contribution by looking at the tasks involved in childcare rather than the responsibilities e.g. a father may play with the children to entertain them critically leaving the mother responsible for the shills security and well-being

Harry Silver (87) and Juliet Schor (93) They stress the importance of two major economical developments that have lightened the burden of housework on women. Housework now commercialised - goods housewives would previously make themselves are now mass produced and widely available, e.g. freezers, ready meals, etc reduce workload for women. Women now work, so they can

afford to buy such goods. They argue that as a result of this, the burden on women has lightened. Schor goes as far to say that such developments have lead to the death of the housewife role.

Arlie Hoschild (1983 and 2003) 1983 women are more likely to expend emotional labour in the home and at work in the caring professions. 2003 - care work, domestic work and sex work in the UK is increasingly done by women from poor countries. This is a result of western women increasingly

joining the labour force and the failure of the state to provide adequate child care. The resulting gap has been filled by women from poor countries. For example, 40% of adult care nurses in the UK are migrants and most of these are female. There is also a global transfer of womens emotional labour. For example, migrant nannies provide care and affection for their employers children at the

expense of their own children left behind in their home country. Dunscombe and Marsden (1995) Women are expected to do a double/triple shift of housework,

childcare and paid work Jeffrey Weeks (1999) Same sex relationships offer greater equality because there is no patriarchy,.

Pahl and Vogler (1993) Men take a greater share of resources and greater say in decisions because they earn more. The identified two systems of income control: the allowance system and the pooling system.

Allowance men work, women get an allowance Pooling both work, share money Pooling has increased drastically but men still make important financial decisions. Edgell (1980)

Most important decisions made by the man Medium sized decisions made jointly or by the man Less important decisions made by the woman!

Goode (1971) Argues that the family, like all social institutions, rests to some degree on force or threat. Husbands/fathers are the most likely to use that force. The family is a form of social control and

violence is one of its features. Dobash and Dobash (1979) argue that we need to place violence in its proper historical setting. They argue that such an

approach exposes violence not as deviant or pathological but as a normal and accepted part of English culture. Housing Act 1977:

Made it the responsibility of local authorities to re-house certain categories of people - mainly families -providing they had not intentionally made themselves homeless. Act explicitly stated that women who had left a violent man should

not be seen as having intentionally made themselves homeless and should be re-housed. WORK STATION TWO MATCH THE WORD TO

THE DEFINITION Achieved Status Self-contained and selfsupporting communities,

where all members of the community share property, childcare, household tasks and living accommodation.

Ageing Population A population in which the average age is getting

higher, with a greater proportion of the population over retirement age, and a smaller proportion of young

people. Arranged Marriage

A marriage which is arranged by the parents of the marriage partners, with a view to compatibility of background and status. More a union between two families than two

people, and romantic love between the marriage partners is not necessarily present. Ascribed

Status Status which is achieved through an individuals own efforts.

Beanpole Family A multigeneration extended family, in a pattern which is long

and thin, with few aunts and uncles, reflecting fewer children being born in each generation, but people living longer.

Communes In demography, the change from high birth and death

rates to low birth and death rates. Conjugal Roles

The roles played by a male and female partner in marriage or in a cohabiting couple.

Death Rate A set of values and beliefs, and a way of life, centred on dependence on others.

Normally used by New Right writers in the context of those who depend on welfare state benefits. Demographic

Transition Status which is given to an individual at birth and usually cant be changed.

Dependency Culture The pattern of behaviour which is

expected from individuals of either sex. Divorce Rate

A family where one or both partners have been previously married, and bring with them children of the previous marriage.

Gender Role A form of marriage in which a man may have two or

more wives at the same time. Matrilocal

The number of divorces per 1,000 married people per year. Polygyny

The number of deaths per 1,000 of the population per year. Reconstituted

Family A perspective that is concerned with the overall structure of society, and

sees individual behaviour moulded by social institutions like the family, the education system, the mass media and work.

Serial Monogamy A form of marriage where a

person keeps marrying and divorcing a series of different partners, but is only married to one person at a time.

Structuralism Describes family systems in which the husband is




live births per 1000 women between the ages

of 15 and 44 years. Life expectancy (ex) is the number of years that a person can expect to live, on average, in a given population

WORK STATION FIVE Match the theorist to the perspective












Go through as many past paper questions as possible. Practise writing under timed conditions Email any answers Remember, in the exam time management,

read the questions very carefully.

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