Ottoman Empire (13001918) Est. by Osman, about 1300 Sultanoverlord Gunpowder empire Expansionisttaking parts of old Byzantine Empire
Mehmed II Conquered Constantinople, 1453 Now controlled BosporusMed. a Muslim Lake Osman I (Othman): 12991326
Continued Expansion by Ottomans Selim the Grim, took Mecca, Medina, Cairo Suleyman the Great (Suleyman the Lawgiver) Invaded Europeclose to Vienna
New law codemix of sharia and secular; highly progressive Less bureaucracy Est. of janissariesChristian converts to Islam; excellent soldiers Religious tolerance in the empireeven alliances with Christian countries Decline after death
Suleiman the Magnificent: (1520-1566) Suleimans Signature The Fall of
Constantinople: 1453 The End of the Byzantine Empire Life under the Ottomans Religious tolerance Taxation not terrible
Blended culturebuilding on what the Byzantines started Flowering of culture Still under very strict laws Conversations Between Muslims & Christians
Scholars at the Galata Observatory (Suleimans Constantinople), 1557 Quran Page: Arabic Calligraphy
Calligraphy Blue Mosque Blue Mosque interior
Prayer Rug, 16c Ottoman Empire Quran Page: The Angel Gabriel Visits Muhammad Collection of Taxes in
Suleimans Court The Golden Age of the Ottomans TPS
With your partner, discuss how you think the West was affected by the Ottoman Empires conquest of the Mediterranean area. Safavid Empire (14991700) Example of cultural blending Squeezed between Ottomans and Mughals
Shiamost other empires Sunni Iran today: still only major Shia power Shah Ismail, 1499: conquest Slaughter of SunniOttoman response
Defeated by Ottomans, 1514 Safavid Empire Shah Abbas (Abbas the Great) Army loyal to him alonemodeled on janissaries Punished govt corruption
Emphasized religious tolerance Golden Age Great trading center--between empires; carpets Brought in artists from China, West, etc. Decline after death Mughal Empire (15001850)
Mughal=Mongol Babur: est. empire; great general Gunpowder empire Small armies, great tactics Strong ruler
Mughal Empire Greatest Leader: Akbar Golden Age Military geniusunified India Cultural blending, as with other later Muslim Empires
Religious tolerance Brought other religions into government Progressive taxation Mughal Cultural flowering
Multi-lingual Rise of Hindu, Muslim Lit Akbar period of architecture Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan Mughal Decline High taxes after Akbar Aurangzeb, turned away from religious
tolerance Angered Hindu majority West starts coming in and taking over pieces
Bombay to British Portuguese, French, Dutch IMPERIALISM STARTING Agenda Warm up: complete Later Islamic Empires
Chart This will be taken up VERY shortly after announcements Islam in Africa
Maghrib: modern day Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco Islam in Africa
Beginning = Umayyad conquerers in Maghrib
Maghrib = modern day Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco Est. of Fatimid (Egypt), Almoravid (Moors, into Spain), Almohad (took control of Almoravids) Almohad Empire broke up into individual Muslim Dynasties Important because it united the people of the
Maghrib for the first time!! Empire of Ghana Empire of Ghana Gold and Salt trade vitally important
Trade had been irregular because of harsh desert conditions until nomads began using camels Camels could travel faster and go longer without water By 800s (C.E.) Ghana is thriving due to trade
Trade brings religion Merchants & teachers settled in the region and introduced their faith Religion usually syncretic (mixed) Islam mixed with traditional beliefs in Animism belief that spirits livingin animals, plants and natural forces play an important role in daily life
Decline of Ghana Not a very strong empire Taken over by Almoravids of North Africa by 1076 C. E. Gold trade badly disrupted Ghana never regained power
Empire of Mali
Kingdom of Mali emerged by 1235 C.E. Wealth also built on gold trade After Ghana declined new deposits of gold were found to the east Trade routes shifted east in the direction of these new gold deposits and Mali Empire of Mali
Sundiata Malis first great leader (sun-JAHT-ah)
Seized power from an unpopular ruler and took over Ghana, along with control of trading cities
Peace followed; good administration, Empire of Mali Sundiata was a great military and civil
leader; est. empire People began to call the area Mali, meaning where the king lives. Malis next rulers
After Sundiata died, many of the next rulers were Muslim
They built mosques, attended public prayer The most famous of these Muslim rulers was Mansa Musa
Ruled from 1312 1332 C.E. Muslim; went on hajj to
When he returned, he ordered the construction of new mosques in the trading cities of Timbuktu & Gao Timbuktu became one of the most important cities in the empire Outstanding mosques and universities Muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders
and scholars were attracted from all over Mansa Musa Decline of Mali Early 1400s, Mali began to decline
Mansa Musas successors werent good governors
Also, gold trade shifted further east Empire of Songhai As Mali declined, people under its rule broke away Some of those people were the Songhai Sunni Ali, Muslim 1st of two great Musllim rulers great military; took over Mali
Songhai controlled trade routes; Capital in Gao After Sunni Ali died, his son who was not a devout Muslim took over Many were upset that he didnt practice Islam faithfully. Revolt; leader = Askia Muhammad
Songhai Leaders Sunni Ali Askia Muhammad Empire of Songhai Askia Muhammad drove Sunni Alis son from
power and took over Religiously devoutMuslim fundamentalist Excellent administrator Efficient tax systme Good officials NOT a gunpowder empireconquered by Moroccans in the late 1500s
The Bantu were a group of people from south of the Sahara desert in Africa Not one people, but shared a common language & culture Farmers, nomadic herders Developed and passed on ironworking
Began to move south and east about 2000 years ago Bantu Migration Map Bantu Migration
Slash and burn method of farming forced them to move every few years
When they moved, they shared agricultural & ironworking skills with the new people they encountered Migrate across central Africa & eventually make their way to the east coast On the coast they built farming & fishing villages
Bantu Migration Coastal villages became busy seaports Trade between East African merchants and traders from Arabia, Persia & India
Trade brought many Muslim Arabs and Persian traders who settled in the area Lead to the development of Swahili, language
that blends Arabic language with the Bantu language Cities on the coast that thrived due to trade are known as Swahili trading cities Summary
3.2.1 Place in 3rd/4th block basket when youre done!
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