Latin American Revolutions - Cabarrus County Schools
Latin American Revolution The conquistadors from Spain defeated the Aztecs and the Incas. Then what happened? How did life change for the native peoples of the New World? Who filled the power vacuum left
when the major powers, the Aztec and Inca, were conquered? Life in the Spanish Colonies Or Causes of Latin American Revolutio ns 1. With your partner, look at the picture. What do you see in the picture? Write what you think each of the labels means on your student handout. Write and be prepared to tell a story about this place
that includes the people and the places in the illustration. http://elcuadernillodesocialesdesegundo.blogspot.com/2012/04/queidea-se-teniade-la-tierra-en-el.html The Hacienda & The Encomienda 2. Complete the definitions for hacienda and encomienda on your student handout. Hacienda = a land grant, or an estate, given to a conquistador by the king that might include a plantation, mines, or factories. Encomienda = a grant from the king giving control
of the lives of the people on the hacienda to a conquistador. The encomienda system is what provides the labor for the hacienda. The Hacienda The hacienda was the Spanish equivalent of a plantation. A hacienda was a large land grant given to a conquistador by the king. The land may also include other means of producing wealthi.e.mines, cattle ranching, and factories. The head of a hacienda was called the patrn. Peasants, or peones, worked land that belonged to the patrn. The campesinos worked small holdings, and owed a portion to the patrn.
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/new-spain-spanish-explorers-and-spanish-colonies.html#lesson https://www.google.com/search? q=hacienda&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=outGU7ZiptCwBJySgGA&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAg&biw=1365&bih=861#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=gBtOQO3wINMCeM %253A%3BpbzMqV8FcyxEPM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fupload.wikimedia.org%252Fwikipedia%252Fcommons%252Fc%252Fc6%252FFrancisco_Oller__Hacienda_Aurora.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fen.wikipedia.org%252Fwiki%252FHacienda%3B1456%3B800 What Was The Encomienda? Brainstorming Questions for your story. The Encomienda In the encomienda, the Spanish crown
granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. It was the responsibility of the person granted the encomienda to compensate their subjects, protect them, educate them in the Christian faith and make sure the people could live off the land. Spain wanted to reduce any chance of overthrow by rebellious groups. In return they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold, or other products. In practice, the difference between encomienda and slavery could be minimal. Many natives were forced to do hard labor
Social Classes in the Spanish ColoniesThe Encomienda System http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/ new-spain-spanish-explorers-and-spanishcolonies.html#lesson Social Classes in the Spanish Colonies 3. As you read about the different social classes in the Spanish colonies, label each section of the pyramid with the appropriate class distinction. 4. Complete the cloze notes/definitions of each social
class on your student handout. Peninsulares A Spanish born Spaniard living in the New World Peninsulares refers to the Iberian Peninsula that contains Spain and Portugal At the top of the class system Governed the Spanish colonies Many times owned large quantities of land Loyalty was to Spain http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/new-spain-spanish-explorers-and-spanishcolonies.html#lesson
Creoles (or Criollos) Pure Spanish blood, but born in the Spanish colonies to two parents born in Spain Not allowed to hold the same positions in government as the Criollos peninsulares Could inherit land from peninsulares parents Became the local aristocrats
https://pgapworld.wikispaces.com/peninsulares http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/new-spain-spanish-explorers-and-spanish-colonies.html#lesson Mestizos And Mulattos Mestizos = Mixed Spanish and Native American heritage. Because they had some Spanish blood, they were considered above any Native American. Mulattos = Mixed Spanish and African heritage
Both above slaves Working class of society Lived mainly in small towns and communities http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/new-spain-spanish-explorers-andspanish-colonies.html#lesson http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mestizo http://www.blackpast.org/aaw/sistema-de-castas-1500s-ca-1829 Labor Class Aztec and other Native Indian
tribes African Slaves at the bottom of the social ladder http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/new-spain-spanish-explorers-andspanish-colonies.html#lesson ttp://www.glogster.com/14rconnal/potosi-andencomienda-systems-review/g-6lv1hm48vp47hpsj1dt00a0 Social Classes in the Spanish Colonies Check your work. Peninsulares Criollos
Mestizos and Mulattoes Labor Class Native Americans and African slaves 5. Read Living in the Colonies: Living in the City with your partner. 6. Describe the life of a wealthy city dweller. 7. Describe the life of the poor in a city.
Describe the life of Check your work. a wealthy city dweller Lived in two story houses with their business on the first floor. Second story held family apartments. House had center courtyard with separate kitchen. House had decorative moldings and carved shutters. Furnishings elegant. Imported Spanish goods, silk draperies , and New World
silver. Arts: Portraits popular, religious works, and decorative statues Drama and music from Europe Lavish parties to show off wealth the poor in the city Lived in barrios, or neighborhoods Free blacks , Indians and mestizos lived here Lived in one-room apartments divided into two rooms by a blanket Some people had to live in shacks Social structure of barrios:
--new immigrants from Spain, poorer Spanish people, and Indian artisans at the top --Gardeners, laborers, porters, and merchants --Unskilled or temporary Indian laborers and blacks Cockfights a form of entertainment Religious holidays with parades and prayers a break from work Watched the wealthy in their new clothes and fine carriages
No com pu ter u sed . Colonies: Living in the Country. and Living on a
Hacienda with your 9. Categorize IT! partner. You have been given pieces of paper on which are important facts from the readings. --Sort the facts into groups of like material --Label each group with a title that best categorizes the information Create a chart: --Number of groups = number of columns on chart --Each column should be labeled with title --Chart should be given a title
Co mp ut er us ed . Colonies: Living in the Country. and Living on a
Hacienda with your 9. Categorize IT! partner. You will use your computers Smart Notebook on which you have been given boxes in which are important facts from the readings. --Sort the facts into groups of like material by moving the boxes --Label each group with a title that best categorizes the information Create a chart: --Number of groups = number of columns on chart --Each column should be labeled with title --Chart should be given a title
Land owned by wealthy. Haciendas=huge country estates. Poor worked on estates for low wages and little hope of owning land. 19th and 20th century political struggles were to overthrow the haciendas. Native Indians forced to work on estates. Millions of African slaves imported for labor on estates. Wealth gained from
sugarcane, coffee, cacao, rice, cotton, wheat, cattle. Land owners attitudes kept laborers in poverty. Hacienda covered hundreds of square miles of land. Latin American countries are Patrons had lots of still mostly agricultural. influence in government. Industrial develop needed. Hacienda was selfsufficient, producing food, clothes, dishes, furniture
and tools. Little purchased from the outside. Patron of the hacienda provided homes, land, necessities, and protection for the peons Almost half the land in South America was haciendas. Patron ruler and judge for the peons. Peons worked for the patron.
Patron kept peons in debt and unable to buy their freedom. People bought what they needed from the hacienda store and paid for the goods with labor. People rarely got out of debt. Profit from items produced on the hacienda went to the patron. Villages on the hacienda had to
pay rent for the homes, land and grazing rights. Paid this by working for the haciendas. Many patrons were absentee owners. They put a manager in charge and built themselves a mansion in the city Mexican Independence Why did the Mexicans
revolt against Spanish rule? Based on your knowledge of the social structure in the Spanish colonies and the treatment of the people, what reasons would mestizos, mulattoes, Native Americans, and African slaves have to revolt against Spanish rule? What reasons would a criollo (creole) have to revolt against Spanish rule? Discuss with your group. Be prepared to share with the class. Miguel Hidalgo Father
of Mexico http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Miguel_Hidalgo_con_estandarte.jpg Gritos de Dolores or Shout of Dolores, September 15, 1810 10. Read the speech by Father Miguel Hidalgo. What was the purpose of the speech? Who do you think Father Hidalgo was addressing when he made his speech? 'My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourselves? Will you recover the lands stolen three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated
Spaniards? We must act at once... Will you defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? Long live Our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government! Death to the gachupines (or peninsulares)!' Wikipedia.com Miguel Hidalgo 11. With your group, read Mexico and Central America Revolt and answer questions 12-16. Be prepared to discuss your
answers with the class. 12. Which groups in Mexico supported Father Hidalgo? Which groups did not support his fight for independence? Why? Flag carried by Miguel Hidalgo and his insurgent militia. Check your answer: 12. Which groups in Mexico supported Father Hidalgo? Which groups did not support his fight for independence? Why?
Answer: Poor mestizos and Native Americans rallied to Father Hidalgo and joined his army. Father Hidalgo called for an end to slavery and for reforms to improve conditions for Native Americans. Creoles (criollos), after first supporting him (remember, only peninsulares could hold certain powerful government positions), rejected Father Hidalgo when they felt the reforms he asked for would cost them power. 13. Who was Jose Morelos? What social and political reforms did he
want for Mexico? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos %C3%A9_Mar%C3%ADa_Morelos Check your answer: 13. Who was Jose Morelos? What social and political reforms did he want for Mexico? Answer: Father Jose Morelos was a mestizo and a priest who called for social and political reforms in the
revolution. Father Morelos wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, abolish slavery, and give the vote to all men. 14. Why did Augustin de Iturbide move from fighting the rebels to reaching out to them to join him in winning independence? http://losaristocratas.com/agustin-de-iturbide-189-anos-de-su-fusilamiento Check your answer:
14. Why did Augustin de Iturbide move from fighting the rebels to reaching out to them to join him in winning independence? Augustin de Iturbide was a conservative creole who became alarmed when, in 1820, liberals in Spain forced the king to issue a constitution. He feared that new reforms would be forced on the colonies.
15. What type of government did Iturbide want to set up after independence from Spain was won? http:// english.bicentenario. gob.mx/index.php? option=com_content &view=article&id=72: independenceagustin-deiturbide&catid=36:in dependence&Itemid =37 Check your answer:
15. What type of government did Iturbide want to set up after independence from Spain was won? Answer: Iturbide wanted a monarch with himself as emperor. 16. What type of government does Mexico have today? Describe the role the people of the country play in this type of government? Check your answer: 16. What type of government does Mexico have today? Describe the
role the people of the country play in this type of government? Answer: Mexico today is a republic. In this type of government, the people elect representatives to the legislative branch and a president. 1821--Mexican Independence gained http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/h/hidalgo.htm
Coat of Arms of Mexico http://www.fotw.us/flags/mx).html American Independenc e Simon Bolivar I swear before God and by my honor never to
allow my hands to be idle nor my soul to rest Until I have broken the chains that bind us to Spain. http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAQQjRw&url=http%3A %2F%2Fwww.thesocialist.us%2Fthe-life-and-legacy-of-simon-bolivar %2F&ei=6vdGU9LzNOfh0QH3nYGACg&usg=AFQjCNHmOshKIZ7r5X6gWW_zQjT4eUk XkA&bvm=bv.64507335,d.dmQ
17. Read Biography: Simon Bolivar with your partner. 18. Create a timeline of important events in the life of Simon Bolivar. Simon Bolivar Timeline Venezuela declares Independence on July 5, 1811
1810 Bolivar captures Bogata, Columbia after defeating Spanish at Battle of Boyaca, 1819 1815 Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Lastaguanes in Venezuela 1813
1820 Bolivia declares Its independence 1825 1825 Bolivar hosts a congress in Panama to promote Latin American unity. 1826.
Bolivar dies. 1830 1830 1 19. Watch the Brainpop video, Simon Bolivar. We will review the quiz questions before the video and the complete the quiz
after viewing. Jose de San Martin 20. Read San Martin Joins the Fight with your partner. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_de_San_Mart%C3%ADn 21. Create a Flow Map showing the sequence of events in San Martins efforts to gain independence for Argentina and other countries in South America.
Check your answer: 21. Create a Flow Map showing the sequence of events in San Martins efforts to gain independence for Argentina and other countries in South America. Creole who went to Europe for military training. Moved on to Peru To fight colonial rule.
Helped Argentina win freedom from Spain. Led an army across the Andes from Argentina into Chile. Defeated the Spanish In Chile. Turned command over to Bolivar allowing him and
his forces to win the final victories against Spain. 22. Read Freedom Leads to Power Struggles and Latin American Independence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_American_wars_of_independence 23. Simon Bolivar wanted to unite the countries in South America into one single nation called Gran Columbia. Why was Bolivar not successful in achieving this dream? Check your answer:
23. Simon Bolivar wanted to unite the countries in South America into one single nation called Gran Columbia. Why was Bolivar not successful in achieving this dream? Answer: Bolivar was not able to unite South America into a single nation due to power struggles between leaders who were bitter rivals. Sources World Studies; Koontz, Sidwell, Bunker; BJU Press, Greenville, SC; 2000; pgs. 175-176, 178.
World History: The Modern Era; Ellis, Esler; Pearson Prentiss Hall, Boston, MA; 2007; pgs. 285-286. Internet websites sourced on individual slides
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