Learning Theories - UPB

Learning Theories - UPB

Learning Theories Dr Shahram Yazdani 2002 ATGCI General learning theories Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Dr Shahram Yazdani 2 2002 ATGCI Representations of the Learning Process

Behaviorism Cognitivism Dr Shahram Yazdani

Stimulus-Response Reinforced Behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence Sequenced knowledge and skills presented in logical limited steps Cognitivist Learning Perspective Information Processing Schema Mental Models Constructivism Inquiry-based Discovery learning 3 2002 ATGCI

Relevant Frameworks Behaviorism Programmed Instruction (logical presentation of content, overt responses, immediate knowledge of correctness) Cognitivism Events of Instruction (Conditions of Learning) Dr Shahram Yazdani

Constructivism Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive Flexibility Situated Learning Zone of Proximal Development 4 2002 ATGCI Key Principles: Behaviorism Learning Dr Shahram Yazdani

happens when a correct response is demonstrated following the presentation of a specific environmental stimulus Emphasis is on observable and measurable behaviors 5 2002 ATGCI Key Principles: Cognitivism

Dr Shahram Yazdani Learning is a change of knowledge state Knowledge acquisition is described as a mental activity that entails internal coding and structuring by the learner. Learner is viewed as an active participant in the learning process Emphasis is on the building blocks of knowledge (e.g. identifing prerequisite relationships of content) Emphasis on structuring, organizign and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing 6

2002 ATGCI Key Principles: Constructivism Dr Shahram Yazdani Learners build personal interpretation of the world based on experiences and interactions Knowledge is embedded in the context in which it is used (authentic tasks in meaningful realistic settings)

Create novel and situation-specific understandings by "assembling" knowledge from diverse sources appropriate to the problem at hand (flexible use of knowledge) 7 2002 ATGCI Goal of Instruction: Behaviorism Dr Shahram Yazdani

Communicate or transfer behaviors representing knowledge and skills to the learner (does not consider mental processing) Instruction is to elicit the desired response from the learner who is presented with a target stimulus Learner must know how to execute the proper response as well as the conditions under which the response is made Instruction utilizes consequences and reinforcement of learned behaviors 8 2002 ATGCI Goal of Instruction: Cognitivism

Communicate or transfer knowledge in the most efficient, effective manner (mindindependent, can be mapped onto learners) Focus of instruction is to create learning or change by encouraging the learner to use appropriate learning strategies Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized, meaningful way. Teachers/designers are responsible for assisting learners in organizing information in an optimal way so that it can be readily assimilated Dr Shahram Yazdani 9

2002 ATGCI Goal of Instruction: Constructivism Dr Shahram Yazdani Build personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions (constantly open to change, cannot achieve a predetermined,

"correct" meaning, knowledge emerges in relevant contexts) Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge Instruction is a process of supporting knowledge construction rather than communicating knowledge Do not structure learning for the task, but engage learner in the actual use of the tools in real world situations 10 2002 ATGCI Instructional/Learning Strategies: Behaviorism

Dr Shahram Yazdani Behaviorism Instructional cues to elicit correct response Practice paired with target stimuli

Reinforcement for correct responses Building fluency (get responses closer and closer to correct response) Multiple opportunities/trials (Drill and practice) Discrimination (recalling facts) Generalization (defining and illustrating concepts) Associations (applying explanations) Chaining (automatically performing a specified procedure) 11 2002 ATGCI Instructional/Learning Strategies: Cognitivism

Dr Shahram Yazdani Information Processing Model Explanations Demonstrations Illustrative examples Gestalt Theory

Matched nonexamples Corrective feedback Outlining Mnemonics Dual-Coding Theory Chunking Information

Repetition Concept Mapping Advanced Organizers Analogies Summaries Keller's ARCS Model of Motivation Interactivity Synthesis 12 2002 ATGCI Instructional/Learning Strategies: Constructivism

Dr Shahram Yazdani Modeling Collaborative Learning Coaching Scaffolding Fading

Problem-Based Learning Authentic Learning REALs Anchored Instruction Cognitive Flexibility Hypertexts Object-based Learning 13 2002 ATGCI Theorists Behaviorism

Skinner Bandura Thorndike Pavlov Dr Shahram Yazdani Vygotsky Lave & Wenger

Piaget Bransford, Hasselbring,etc. (CTGV) Grabinger Spiro and colleagues Cognitivism Constructivism

Gagne Bruner Anderson Gardner Novak Rummelhart Norman 14 2002 ATGCI Constructivist Theory Jerome Bruner Constructivist Theory

Dr Shahram Yazdani Learning is an active process in which learners discover and construct new ideas/concepts based on their current/prior knowledge. The issues that guide this process must be personally or societally relevant. Bruner believed that the learner selects information, constructs ideas based on that information and makes decisions by relying on their own cognitive structure of information. 16 2002 ATGCI Constructivist Theory

Bruner Dr Shahram Yazdani believed that instruction should allow the learner to discover principles for themselves through active dialog. Instructors should become information facilitators instead of information transmitters. 17 2002 ATGCI Constructivist Theory Instruction should address four

major aspects: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. predisposition toward learning 2. the ways in which knowledge can be structured so that it is readily grasped by the learner 3. effective sequencing of the material 4. the nature and pacing of rewards 18 2002 ATGCI Constructivist Theory To Dr Shahram Yazdani

Bruner, knowledge is the activity of the person in the content domain and learning is the struggling of the learner with the issues within that domain. 19 2002 ATGCI Constructivist Theory Principles: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the

student willing and able to learn. 2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization). 3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and/or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given). 20 2002 ATGCI Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Piaget believed that cognitive

development occurs through a sequence of successive qualitative changes in cognitive structures. Dr Shahram Yazdani 22 2002 ATGCI Cognitive Development Piagets Four Stages: Sensorimotor Stage (birth - 2 yrs): actions become more intentional and integrated into patterns, there is an increased awareness of self and surroundings.

Preoperational Thought Stage (2 - 7yrs): development of language and conceptual thought occurs. Concrete Operations Stage (7-11yrs): increased ability to apply logical thought to concrete problems, thinking is still primarily related to immediate experience. Dr Shahram Yazdani Formal Operations Stage (11yrs on): ability to apply logic to a variety of problems; higher order

thinking occurs. 23 2002 ATGCI Cognitive Development Instructional Implications: 1. 2. Dr Shahram Yazdani 3. There should be plenty of opportunity for assimilation and accommodation in order for students to proceed from one stage to the next.

The richer the experience, the more elaborate the cognitive structure development. Materials and activities should be geared for the appropriate level of cognitive development. 24 2002 ATGCI Elaboration Theory Reigeluth Elaboration Theory Elaboration Theory details a general model of organizing

instruction from a simple to more complex structure. Dr Shahram Yazdani 26 2002 ATGCI Elaboration Theory Features of the Model (Ragan & Smith, 1996): Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. An epitome at the beginning of the instruction

2. A learning-prerequisite sequence within each level of elaboration 3. A learner-control format 4. The use of analogies, summarizers and sythesizers. 27 2002 ATGCI Elaboration Theory Courses can have 3 different structurings which are based on the goals of the course. Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Conceptual: A course structure that is based upon concepts. There are three types: parts,

kinds, and matrices 2. Procedural: A course structure where learning/ teaching is based on knowing the procedures for how to do something. There are two different kinds of procedural knowledge: procedural order and procedural decision. 3. Theoretical: A course structure where learning/ teaching is based on theory. There are two types: theory that describes a natural phenomena (descriptive) and those that affect a desired outcome (prescriptive). 28 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Roger Schank

Problem-Based Learning Learning that is situated around an event, case, problem, or scenario. Dr Shahram Yazdani 30 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Five Strategies for Using PBL (Duffy & Cunningham, 1996): 1. The Problem as a Guide: the problem is presented in order to gain attention prior to presenting

the lesson. Dr Shahram Yazdani 31 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Five Strategies for Using PBL Dr Shahram Yazdani 2. The Problem as an Integrator or Test: the problem is presented after readings are completed and/or discussed -- these are used to check for understanding. 32

2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Five Strategies for Using PBL Dr Shahram Yazdani 3. The Problem as an Example: the problem is integrated into the material in order to illustrate a particular principle, concept or procedure. 33 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Five Strategies for Using PBL

Dr Shahram Yazdani 4. The Problem as a Vehicle for Process: the problem is used to promote critical thinking whereby the analysis of how to solve it becomes a lesson in itself. 34 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Five Strategies for Using PBL Dr Shahram Yazdani 5. The Problem as a Stimulus for

Authentic Activity: the problem is used to develop skills necessary to solve it and other problems -- skills can include physical skills, recall of prior knowledge, and metacognitive skills related to the problem solving process. A form of authentic assessment of the skills and activity necessary in the content domain. 2002 ATGCI 35 Problem-Based Learning Design PBL Instruction:

Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Task Analysis: analysis must take place not only within the content domain but should also determine the actual setting where the learning will be authentic. 2. Problem Generation: The problems must be constructed so they include the concepts and principles that are relevant and they must be set in a real context. 36 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Learning Sequence:

Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Collaborative Analysis session where groups work together to solve the problem. 2. Self-directed Learning where the students identify the information and resources that are necessary to solve the problem. 37 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning The instructor in PBL only acts as a facilitator to learning, instead of

a transmitter of the necessary information. Dr Shahram Yazdani 38 2002 ATGCI Problem-Based Learning Dr Shahram Yazdani Assessment: assessment of learning must occur within the context of the problems and should be in the form of both self assessment and peer

assessment. 39 2002 ATGCI Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne Conditions of Learning Gagnes Dr Shahram Yazdani theory defines five major categories of learning that each require a different type of instruction in order for learning to

occur. The five categories are: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes. 41 2002 ATGCI Conditions of Learning Nine events of Instruction (Ragan & Smith, 1996) Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Gain Attention 2. Inform the learner of the objective 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge

4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learning guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention and transfer 42 2002 ATGCI Conditions of Learning

Major Principles of Gagnes Theory (Kearsley, 1998) Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Different instruction is needed for different learning outcomes. 2. Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute conditions of learning. 3. The specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each type of learning outcome. 4. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction. 43 2002 ATGCI

Assimilation Theory David Ausubel Assimilation Theory Assimilation Dr Shahram Yazdani Theory: Concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material. The primary process in learning is that new information is related to relevant knowledge that is already existing in an individuals cognitive structure. 45

2002 ATGCI Assimilation Theory The steps to this process are: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Subsumptive: meaning and new examples are added to an existing concept 2. Superordinate: ideas and concepts are sythesized and therefore new inclusive concepts are created 3. Combinatorial: additional background is added to achieve a more global understanding of the concept.

46 2002 ATGCI Assimilation Theory Dr Shahram Yazdani Ausubel differs from Gestalt theories, schema theory and Bruners spiral learning model in that he emphasizes the reorganization of existing cognitive structures. Ausubel believed that you should ascertain the cognitive structures of your learners and teach then accordingly. 47 2002 ATGCI

Assimilation Theory Principles: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. The most general ideas of a subject should be presented first and then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specificity. 2. Instructional materials should attempt to integrate new materials with previously learned material by comparing new and old ideas and concepts. 48

2002 ATGCI Meaningful Learning David Ausubel Meaningful Learning Dr Shahram Yazdani Meaningful learning occurs when learners actively interpret their experience using internal, cognitive operations. Prior knowledge is the most significant in determining what new learning will occur.

"The model of cognitive organization proposed for the learning and retention of meaningful materials assumes the existence of a cognitive structure that is hierarchically organized." (Ausubel, 1963, p. 217) 50 2002 ATGCI Meaningful Learning Key Concepts Dr Shahram Yazdani

Cognitive Structure: the learner's overall memory structure or integrated body of knowledge. Anchoring Ideas: the specific, relevant ideas in the learner's cognitive structure that provide the entry points for new information to be connected. Reception Learning: the entire content of what is to be learned is presented to the learner in its final form. 51 2002 ATGCI Meaningful Learning Key Concepts

Dr Shahram Yazdani Discovery Learning: learners are required to rearrange a given array of information, integrate it with existing cognitive structures, and reorganize the integrated combination in such a way as to create a desired end product. Rote Learning: the learner memorizes and makes no connection between what was known and what was memorized. Meaningful Learning: the process of relating potentially meaningful information to what the learner already knows in a substantive way. 52

2002 ATGCI Meaningful Learning Representational Dr Shahram Yazdani Learning: learning the meanings of unitary symbols or words. This is the most basic form of learning and serves as a foundation for all other learning to occur. Conception Learning: knowing beyond representation -- understanding the critical attributes that surround a concept and differentiate it from other concepts.

Prepositional Learning: the meanings of new ideas expressed in verbal prepositions are acquired -- individual words and concepts are now combined to form a new idea -- inferences are now being made by the learner. 53 2002 ATGCI Meaningful Learning Cognitive structure and anchoring ideas within the cognitive structure are the prerequisites to meaningful learning. Dr Shahram Yazdani

54 2002 ATGCI Social Development Theory Zone of Proximal Development Lev Vygotsky Social Development Theory Vygotsky Dr Shahram Yazdani believed that social interaction played a role in the development of cognition -learning could occur through social contact.

56 2002 ATGCI Social Development Theory Vygotsky Dr Shahram Yazdani (1978) states "every function in the childs cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and then, later, on the individual level; first, between people, then inside the child." 57 2002 ATGCI

Social Development Theory Three types of Experience: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Historical: knowledge through generations 2. Social: knowledge obtained through contact with someone else 3. Adaptation: knowledge obtained by acting on the environment 58 2002 ATGCI

Social Development Theory Vygotsky Dr Shahram Yazdani believed that all higher order functions begin as actual relations between individuals -this should be focused on because it is unique to humans. 59 2002 ATGCI Social Development Theory Four Assumptions about Learning:

Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Signalization: something that is common to all organisms. 2. 2. Signification: humans have evolved to a different level; the stimulus is not the only thing connected to the response. A symbol system becomes part of the response. Meaning is assigned to an arbitrary stimulus. 3. Biological: part of the evolutionary process 4. Sociohistorical: creation and use of a culturally based signs and symbol system. 60 2002 ATGCI Zone of Proximal Development The

Dr Shahram Yazdani distance between the actual developmental level that is reflected and the level that is accomplished - created in the interaction between adult and child. 61 2002 ATGCI Zone of Proximal Development The Dr Shahram Yazdani

basic premise is that the adult provides the support and scaffolding for the individual until the individual assimilates the knowledge into their own cognitive structure. The idea behind scaffolding is that the support system is gradually taken away as the learner begins to take over and understand the process. 62 2002 ATGCI Cognitive Flexibility Theory Rand Spiro

Cognitive Flexibility Theory CFT states that learning should be focused in complex and illstructured domains. (Kearsley, 1998) Dr Shahram Yazdani 64 2002 ATGCI Cognitive Flexibility Theory "The Dr Shahram Yazdani theory is largely concerned with

transfer of knowledge and skills beyond their initial learning situation. For this reason, emphasis is placed upon the presentation of information from multiple perspectives and use of many case studies that present diverse examples." (Kearsley, 1998) 65 2002 ATGCI Cognitive Flexibility Theory Instructional Strategies (Grabinger, 1996) Dr Shahram Yazdani

1. CFT uses several cases and rich examples in their full complexity. 2. CFT uses multiple forms of knowledge representation, providing examples in several kinds of media. 3. CFT links abstract concepts to case examples and brings out the generalizable concepts and strategies applicable to other problems or cases. 4. To avoid mistakes of oversimplification, CFT presents a number of examples to make apparent, rather than hide, the variability of concepts and themes within the domain. 66 2002 ATGCI

Instructional Transaction Theory (ID2) Merrill, Li and Jones Instructional Transaction Theory Purpose: Dr Shahram Yazdani In response to perceived limitations in existing instructional design models and theories, Merrill, Li and Jones have developed what is referred to as a "second generation theory of instructional design" whose purpose is to expedite the design of

an automated system or "ID expert." 68 2002 ATGCI Instructional Transaction Theory Reasons for ID2: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. To analyze, represent, and guide instruction to teach integrated sets of knowledge and skill 2. To produce pedagogic prescriptions about selection and sequence of instruction

3. To be an open system that can respond to new theory 69 2002 ATGCI Instructional Transaction Theory Critical Concepts: Instructional Dr Shahram Yazdani Transactions: instructional algorithms and patterns of learner interactions that have been designed to enable the learner to acquire a certain kind of knowledge or skill. A mutual, dynamic interaction

between the instructional system and the student in which there is an exchange of information. 70 2002 ATGCI Instructional Transaction Theory Critical Concepts: Transaction Dr Shahram Yazdani Shell: the structure of a transaction that identifies the interactions, parameters and knowledge representations needs for a given class of transactions. These

shells can consist of 2 subsystems: an authoring environment and a delivery environment. 71 2002 ATGCI Instructional Transaction Theory Critical Concepts: Transaction Dr Shahram Yazdani Class: a set of similar transaction shells which have similar interaction requirements and similar knowledge representation

requirements. 72 2002 ATGCI Instructional Transaction Theory Critical Concepts: Transaction Dr Shahram Yazdani Family: all of the transactions necessary to enable the learner to acquire all of the necessary knowledge and skill -- to establish an effective mental model.

73 2002 ATGCI Instructional Transaction Theory Critical Concepts: Enterprise Transaction: a higher level interaction which provides direction of execution and integration of learning. Dr Shahram Yazdani 74 2002 ATGCI

Situated Learning Jean Lave Situated Learning Learning is a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it occurs. All material that is taught should be situated in real-world contexts from the start. (Winn & Snyder, 1996, p.124) Cognitive Apprenticeships All instruction should mimic the real life situation in which that knowledge would be useful. This will enable learners to store information in such a way that is easily retrievable. (Wilson & Cole, 1996, p.606)

Dr Shahram Yazdani 76 2002 ATGCI Multiple Intelligence Theory Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory The Dr Shahram Yazdani theory states that there are seven distinct forms of intelligence

(recently an 8th was introduced) that each individual possesses to a different degree. 78 2002 ATGCI Multiple Intelligence Theory Eight Intelligences: Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. Verbal/Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Spatial Bodily/Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Musical Naturalistic 79 2002 ATGCI Multiple Intelligence Theory Instructional Implications:

Dr Shahram Yazdani Teaching/learning should focus on the strength (particular intelligences) of each person and assessment of learning should measure all forms, not just specific ones. 80 2002 ATGCI Multiple Intelligence Theory Principles (Kearsley, 1998): Dr Shahram Yazdani

1. Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning. 2. Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence. 3. Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence. 81 2002 ATGCI Component Display Theory David Merrill Component Display Theory Component

Dr Shahram Yazdani Display Theory is a conditions-based theory of instructional design that is an extension of Gagnes Conditions of Learning (Ragan & Smith, 1996). Use of this theory is promoted by Reigeluth as a means for designing instruction at the micro or lesson level in Elaboration Theory. 83 2002 ATGCI Component Display Theory CDT

Dr Shahram Yazdani classifies learning objectives in two dimensions: performance level (remember, use or find) and content type (facts, concepts, principles, or procedures) (Ragan & Smith, 1996). 84 2002 ATGCI Component Display Theory Fact Concep Procedu Principl t re

e Find Dr Shahram Yazdani Use Remem ber 85 2002 ATGCI Component Display Theory Dr Shahram Yazdani

Primary Presentation Forms: Content (generality or instance) and Approach (expository or inquisitory) Secondary Presentation Forms: Prerequisites, context, helps, representation, mnemonics, feedback. According to the theory, instruction is more effective when it contains all of the necessary primary and secondary presentation forms. 86 2002 ATGCI Component Display Theory Principles (Kearsley, 1998):

Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Instruction will be more effective if all three primary performance forms are present. 2. Primary forms can be presented by either an explanatory or inquisitory learning strategy. 3. The sequence of primary forms is not critical provided they are all present. 4. Students should be given control over the number of instances or 87 practice items they receive. 2002 ATGCI Social Learning Theory

Observational Learning Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory Social Dr Shahram Yazdani Learning Theory: people are not driven by either inner forces or environmental stimuli in isolation; instead behaviors are learned through continuous interaction of personal and environmental determinants and all learning from direct experience occurs by observing other peoples behavior. (Burton, Moore, & Magliaro, 1996).

89 2002 ATGCI Observational Learning Observation Learning Process (Burton et al., 1996): Dr Shahram Yazdani Attention Processes: determine what is selectively observed and extracted Retential Processes: patterns of behavior are attended to and retained Motor Reproduction Processes: the behavior is reproduced and refined on a basis of feedback.

Motivation: the behavior is more likely adopted if it is considered valuable or functional. 90 2002 ATGCI Observational Learning A. Dr Shahram Yazdani Learn by watching: you don't have to do something in order to learn it B. Abstract, decide, engage: learners see something in the

environment, abstract what they've seen, decide if it is important and then repeat the behavior. 91 2002 ATGCI Social Learning Theory Reciprocal Dr Shahram Yazdani Determinism: Interpersonal and nonsocial environmental factors come together. The behavior of individuals occurs because of prior interactions with other people AND

with the immediate environment. (Glover, Bruning, & Filbeck, 1983) 92 2002 ATGCI Blooms Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom Blooms Taxonomy Dr Shahram Yazdani 1. Knowledge: the remembering, identification or recall of previously learned material. 2. Comprehension: the understanding of the material and its meaning -- the learner can put the material in their own words.

3. Application: The use of learned material in new situations -- the learner can use and make an abstraction of the material in a concrete context 94 2002 ATGCI Blooms Taxonomy Dr Shahram Yazdani 4. Analysis: The breaking down of the material into its component parts so its organizational structure can be understood 5. Synthesis: Putting all of the pieces of the material together to form a whole -- the learner can put together old knowledge in new ways

6. Evaluation: the learner can make judgements based on their knowledge about the value of methods and materials for some purpose. 95 2002 ATGCI

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