Lecture 1: Experimental Foundations of Special relativity

Lecture 1: Experimental Foundations of Special relativity

Relativity and Introductory Particle Physics Hilary Term, 2010 S. Biller wwwpnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/~biller/particle_course Suggested Reading List Introduction to Special Relativity Rindler (good, basic text) Particle Physics Martin & Shaw (very nice!) Introduction to Elementary Particles

Griffiths (a bit more mathematical) Nuclear and Particle Physics Williams (less mathematical but very good) Quarks The Str ong Interac tion Introduction to High Energy Physics Perkins (some very good sections... worth a look) Femtophysics (a bit mathmatical for this course,

Bowler but contains some real gems !) Lepto ns Facts and Mysteries in Particle Physics Veltman (Historical - a good read!) Particle Physics:A Very Short Introduction Close (Handbook of basic concepts) Scientific American articles (generally written at an extremely good level)

III. Tools of the Trade I. Experimental Foundations of Special Relativity (Rindler: sec 1-5; 8-11) Michelson-Morley Hamar Kennedy & Thorndike Alvager & Others Time Dilation (Rindler: sec 20, 22, 26-31) (M&S: sec 1.5; append. A & B) High Energy Units 4-Vectors

Cross-Sections Mean Free path IV. Antiparticles & Virtual Particles (M&S: chap. 1, 11.4.2) Klein-Gordon Equation Antiparticles & Asymmetry Yukawa Potential & The Pion The Bound State of the Deuteron Virtual Particles Feynman Diagrams

V. QED; Symmetry II. Relativistic Space-Time (M&S: sec 5.1, 5.2, 7.1.2) Bohr Magneton Off-Shell Electrons Vacuum Polarization Divergences, Running Coupling & Renormalization Yukawa Scattering & the Propagator VII. Symmetries II

(M&S: sec 3.1-3.4, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6) Charge Conjugation Time Reversal CPT Theorem Baryon & Lepton Number Strangeness XI. Weak Interactions (M&S: sec 4.51, 8.1; chap. 10) Cross-Section and the W Coupling Cabibbo Angle and CKM Matrix Parity Violation Kaons and Mixing

CP Violation VIII. Quarks I XII. Electroweak Theory IX. Quarks II XIII. Detectors (M&S: sec chap 3, 6.2) Strangeness Meson & Baryon Multiplets 3-Quark Model & The Meson Nonets

(M&S: sec 6.2, 6.3, 7.1) Quarks and the Baryon Multiplets Colour and Gluons Confinement & Asymptotic Freedom Quark Flow Diagrams (Rindler: sec 6-7; 19-21; 15-18) Lorentz Transformations Invariant Intervals & VI. Symmetries I X. Quarks III

Proper Time (M&S: sec 5.3, 6.1; app. D.1, D.2) (M&S: sec 6.4, 7.23, 7.3, 8.23) EM Unification Symmetry & Unification The November Revolution Equiv of Mass & Energy Space-Time Symmetries Heavy Quark States Space-Time Diagrams Gauge Invariance in EM Truth Relativistic Optics Noethers Theorem R Isospin Parity

(M&S: chap. 9, 10) Kaon Regeneration & Oscillation The Mass of the W Massless Photon & Broken Symmetry The Higgs Mixing and the Weinberg Angle The Mass of the Z Z Decay (M&S: sec. 4.3, 4.4, 4.5) Visual Track Detectors Electronic Ionization Devices Cerenkov Detectors Calorimeters

Photomultiplier Tubes & Scintillators Tricks With Timing Generic Collider Detector XIV. Solar & Atmospheric Neutrinos (M&S: sec. 2.3, 11.1) Websites of Interest www.anu.edu.au/Physics/Searle Visualising relativistic optics, including movies (cool!) particleadventure.org Nice overview of various things at basic level

pdg.lbl.gov Particle Data Group : The Bible of particle properties, limits, formulae, reviews... www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/ Nifty physics Java applets (not strictly particle physics) - check out the Bose-Einstein Condensate section! www.fnal.gov/pub/inquiring/ Overview and lots of interesting stuff (including live displays of CDF & D0 events with explanation!) www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/ Nice discussion of linear colliders etc. www.cern.ch

CERN !! (enough said) hepweb.rl.ac.uk/ppuk/ Particle physics news and links www.ep.ph.bham.ac.uk/user/watkins/seeweb/bubblechamber.htm Bubble chamber pictures with explanations and excercises! Lecture 1: Experimental Foundations of Special relativity Michelson & Morley

Hamar Kennedy and Thorndike Alvager and Others Time Dilation

Useful Sections in Rindler: Section 1-5, 8-11 Special Relativity Review Einsteins Two Postulates of Special Relativity: I. The laws of physics are identical in all inertial frames II. Light propagates in vacuum rectilinearly, with the same speed at all times, in all directions and in all inertial frames

Michelson & Morley (1887): 1 d L c speed relative to mirrors c-v c

c+ v v t1 2 v v v v v ct1 = 2d c2t12 = 4d2 = 4 ( L2 + v2t12/4)

t1 = 2L/c 1 - v /c 2 2 speed relative to mirrors v 2

v L L t2 = c-v + c+v t2 = 2L/c 1 - v2/c2 1/8th predicted displacement !! data Conclusions:

1) Aether moves with the earth (aether drag) or 2) Length contraction occurs for all objects moving through the aether (Lorentz-Fitzgerald hypothesis) Hamar (1935): (also, no aberation of starlight due to motion with respect to earths aether) Eliminates 1st explanation

Kennedy & Thorndike (1932): 1 v 2 Any length contraction alone will affect the distances (hence, the phases) for paths 1 and 2 to different extents, unless the frequency also changes to compensate (i.e. time dilation)

30 km/s 30 km/s Eliminates 2nd explanation lead-glass scintillator calorimetric Cherenkov measurement

(E> 6 GeV) prompt timing thin lead signal converter charged particle veto 0 2 proton collision with Be target to make pions

collimate beam Magnets sweep out charged particles Detection points spaced according to bunch structure (105ns x c) Absorb swept particles sweep charged particle again

from grazing interactions = 0.005 0.013 ns (out of 105 ns separation) If Then c = c + kv k < 10-5 Well, Is There Any Reason To Expect Anything Different ?? A Test Of t E L EQG c Amelino-Camelia et al., Nature, 25 June 1998 Astrophysics, abstract astro-ph/9811018 A time varying speed of light as a solution to cosmological puzzles Authors: Andreas Albrecht, Joao Magueijo Comments: To be published in Physical Review D. Note added referring to

John Moffat's early work on VSL theories Journal-ref: Phys.Rev. D59 (1999) 043516 We consider the cosmological implications of light travelling faster in the early Universe. We propose a prescription for deriving corrections to the cosmological evolution equations while the speed of light c is changing. We then show how the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems may be solved. We also study cosmological perturbations in this scenario and show how one may solve the homogeneity and isotropy problems. As it stands, our scenario appears to most easily produce extreme homogeneity, requiring structure to be produced in the Standard Big Bang epoch. Producing significant perturbations during the earlier epoch would require a rather careful design of the function c(t). The large entropy inside the horizon nowadays can also be accounted for in this scenario. G. & V. Sokolov, 2007: Orbital Experiment with a Femtosecond Laser for Testing Light Speed Invariance

Iman Joudaki, 2007: Test of Special Relativity Using Nano Technology Einsteins Two Postulates of Special Relativity: I. The laws of physics are identical in all inertial frames II. Light propagates in vacuum rectilinearly, with the same speed at all times, in all directions and in all inertial frames From this, Insanity Follows...

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