Lecture 1: Introduction

Lecture 1: Introduction

New SA Training Topic 8: File System Access Our organization uses a variety of services for accessing files on remote systems WWW FTP CIFS/SMB (Windows to Windows)

NFS (Linux to Linux) Samba (Windows to Linux and Linux to Windows Web Web administration is determining what files to share and how to manage content. Our Linux systems use Apaches httpd Configuration via httpd.conf (and, optionally, other files) httpd supports only HTTP

Web (cont.) Our Windows systems use Microsofts IIS Configuration via MMC IIS supports several internet protocols HTTP FTP SMTP NNTP (and others) FTP Windows FTP runs as a sub-service to IIS

Configuration via Internet Service Manager (MMC to Internet Information Services) Linux FTP runs more independently Configuration through .conf file (for example, using vsftp and vsftpd.conf) Avoid anonymous logins unless specifically needed File systems The

primary problem is how to give a consistent view of the system across multiple hosts. Any questions on fundamental filesystem issues? (You should be able to perform CRUD at each of these levels.) Disks Partitions File systems ACLS File-types Etc. Windows File System Access

Windows network filesystem access DFS Combines multiple Windows shares into a single root for easy access Shares CIFS (SMB) protocol used to allow access to files on one computer from another Enabling sharing Creating a share GUI Explorer or via MMC Command line net share or rmtshare Win. File System Access (cont.) Viewing available shares GUI Explorer or via MMC

Command line net share or net view Connecting to a share GUI - Explorer Command line net use Linux File System Access Network File System - NFS protocol used to allow file sharing Enabling NFS Nfsd requires rpc.mountd, rpc.nfsd, portmap

Creating a share /etc/exports /etc/exports lists directories that a server exports to its clients. Each line in the file specifies a single directory. Linux File System Access (cont.) The syntax of the /etc/exports file is: directory [host1]([option][,option]) [host2]([option][,option]) directory [host1]([option][,option]) directory [host3]([option] [,option]) [host7]([option][,option])

The directory is the full path name of the directory Option can designate a simple flag such as ro, rw, sync, or root_squash The server automatically exports these when the NFS server is started These exported directories can then be mounted by clients Linux File System Access (cont.) /usr/games /home /var/tmp /usr/lib

box1(ro) comp2(ro) 10.0.1.9(ro) box2.external.net(rw,no_root_squash) clients *.internal.net(rw) Entry #1 - /usr/games can be mounted by the systems named box1, comp2, and sys3. (They can read data/run programs, but they cant write in the directory) Entry #2 - /home can be mounted by the system box1 and root access is allowed for the directory Entry #3 - any client can mount /var/tmp (Note: no access list) Entry #4 - specifies an access list designated by the netgroup named clients. Machines designated as belonging to clients can mount the /usr/lib directory from this server; also any host from internal.net can access with read and write permissions Linux File System Access (cont.)

Considering the exportation of a parent directory in a tree that includes one or more child directories. If you mount the parent directory, would you expect to see the child directories? In some implementations, you will see the child directories, but with no data beneath them. In others, including RH9, you will see the child directories and data

Use the hide and no_hide options if you want to set the entire sub-tree as hidden or visible Linux File System Access (cont.) /usr/sbin/exportfs -a Exportfs can also be used to add/remove shares on the fly Viewing available shares Showmount e Diagnostics on messages set via NFS nfsstat Connecting to a share Establish local mount point and mount share mount -t nfs server:/share /mnt/mymntpoint Use fstab Mounts during system boot

Linux File System Access (cont.) What about users? Users are dealt with by assuming that UIDs and GIDs are the same on both the server and the client Do you want root on clientbox to be root on serverbox? Do you want user1 on client box to be user1 on serverbox? root_squash no_root_squash all_squash

Samba SAMBA Based on SMB (Server Message Block, also known as CIFS) Server and Client Server allows sharing of file system and/or printers with any system that supports SMB (including both Windows and Linux) Client allows for connections to any SMB server

Can act as a Windows Domain Controller Supports network browsing Samba Our organization uses Samba because of its ability to share files across platforms. It can provide other services as well. 5 Basic Services file sharing (this is our primary concern) network printing authentication and authorization name resolution

service announcement (i.e., Windows browsing). Samba (cont.) Samba includes two core services smbd nmbd (for NetBIOS name resolution) smb.conf smbstatus

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