Lecture #22 Date - BIOLOGY JUNCTION

Lecture #22 Date - BIOLOGY JUNCTION

Lecture #22 Date ____ Chapter 50 ~ An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere I am the Lorax. I speak for the trees. I speak for the trees, for the trees have no tongues. Ecology Components: abiotic~nonliving chemical & physical factors biotic~living

factors Population~group of individualsof the same species in a particular geographical area Community~assemblage of populations of different species Ecosystem~all abiotic factors and the community of species in an area Rachel Carson, 1962, Silent Spring

Abiotic factors Biosphere~the sum of all the planets ecosystems Biome~ areas of predominant flora and fauna Temperature Water Sunlight

Wind Rocks & Soil Periodic disturbances Ecotone: biome grading areas Global climate Seasons Precipitation & Winds Lake stratification & turnover Thermal stratification~ vertical temperature layering Biannual mixing~ spring and summer Turnover~ changing water temperature profiles; brings oxygenated water from the surface to the bottom and nutrient rich water form the bottom to the

surface Aquatic biomes Vertical stratification: photic zone~ photosynthetic light aphotic zone~ little light thermocline~ narrow stratum of rapid temperature chang benthic zone~ bottom substrate Benthos~ community of organisms Detritus~ dead organic matter; food for benthic organisms

Freshwater biomes Littoral zone~ shallow, well-lit waters close to shore Limnetic zone~ well-lit, open water farther from shore Profundal zone~ deep, aphotic waters Lake classification: oligotrophic~ deep, nutrient poor eutrophic~ shallow, high nutrient content mesotrophic~

moderate productivity Wetland~ area covered with water Estuary~ area where freshwater merges with ocean Marine biomes Intertidal zone~ area where land meets water

Neritic zone~ shallow regions over continental shelves Oceanic zone~ very deep water past the continental shelves Pelagic zone~ open water of any depth Benthic zone~ seafloor bottom Abyssal zone~ benthic region in deep oceans

Terrestrial biomes Tropical forests~ equator; most complex; constant temperature and rainfall; canopy Savanna~ tropical grassland with scattered trees; occasional fire and drought; large herbivores Desert~ sparse rainfall (<30cm/yr) Chaparral~ spiny evergreens at midlatitudes along coasts Temperate grassland~ all grasses; seasonal drought, occasional fires; large mammals Temperate deciduous forest~ midlatitude regions; broad-leaf deciduous trees Coniferous forest~ cone-bearing trees Tundra~ permafrost; very little precipitation

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