Lecture 4 Theories of globalisation - Masarykova univerzita
Lecture 4 Theories of globalisation 15 March 2006 the g-word Globe (from L. globus) 1551 "sphere," "round mass, sphere Sense of "planet earth," or a three-dimensional map of it first used in 1553 Globalization first used in 1959
1962: the noun appears in the Oxford English dictionary But three decades passed before G was developed in social sciences as a paradigm Hyperinflation in the use of the term G is applied to almost everything the most abused word of the 21st century (The Economist) G is both a discursive and a descriptive
concept how we understand G has much to do with our political views and theoretical standing G is a terrain of conflicting discourses How to explain G? Because G has many layers and dimensions, a good theory must explain its complexity A theory needs to be adaptable in defining G because the world is changing: a new
world society is still being formed: The global age needs a new theory Theories of G (Lechner & Boli, 2005)
1. World system theory 2. Neorealism/neoliberal institutionalism 3. World polity theory 4. World culture theory 1. World System Theory Reflected in readings from Immanuel Wallerstein, Leslie Sklair In the 1950s, the dominant theory was
modernisation theory; its problem was that some countries were not developing/ modernising as predicted evidence did not fit theory hence... 1. World System Theory WST developed out of attempt to explain the failure of certain states to develop Looking at Latin America, their economies could not compete, global capitalism forced
certain countries into under-development Trade is asymmetrical Poor countries are dependent on rich states 1. World System Theory
Key concepts: CORE: rich & developed states PERIPHERY: poor & dependent states SEMI-PERIPHERY: the in-between tampon zone; semi-industrialised states Semiperiphery keeps the system stable 1. World System Theory Trade & investment concentration The core dictates the terms of trade
Dependency makes the situation of peripheral states even worse (they may even lose their political autonomy) The world system perpetuates dominance by the core & dependency of the periphery G perpetuates inequality global economic system is inherently unfair 1. World System Theory International organisations do not influence
the fundamental position of core and periphery because most NGOs and IGOs are created by core countries The idea that governments and international institutions can make the system fair is an illusion (because they always reflect interests of capitalists) 2. Neorealism Realism and Neorealism dominant in IR theory for
several decades Realisms central claim: states are dominant actors in world politics; driven by desire to survive and become more powerful (war, military competition) Critique of R: states no longer in constant struggle for survival; economic and social issues matter; R better suited to explain 18th and 19th c. situation 2. Neoliberal institutionalism Reflected in Robert Keohane & Joseph Nye:
complex interdependence Critical response to realism: G produces a more complex system of interdependent states; societies are interconnected in many ways; power and security are not the only thing that matters states interact over many different kinds of issues 2. Neoliberal institutionalism Military force is no longer seen as being
central to inter-state relations; international organisations are the centre of global politics To understand global politics, we have to study what goes on in international organisations (e.g. WTO) 2. Neoliberal institutionalism World society contains many centres of power; there is no one, single power hierarchy
Transnational rules and organisations now have much more influence States are still important but the system is one of interdependence - other organisations also influence world politics in critical ways The use of force is less effective; no hierarchy of issues exists that would be the same for all states 3. World polity theory Developed in response to modernisation
theory, WST and R Reflected in John W. Meyer et.al. Polity = activities and associations of the public, political sphere World polity = political structures, associations and culture in the international sphere 3. World polity theory Contrary to observations of other theories, WPT is
focused on the fact that societies have been becoming more similar in terms of their government and state policies Isomorphism: trying to account for a world whose societies ... are structurally similar in many unexpected dimensions and change in unexpectedly similar ways 3. World polity theory
States govern on the basis of cognitive models (which come from the culture and society) associations, IGOs and NGOs and other states transmit models of how to govern Worldwide models are constructed and reproduced through global cultural and associational processes models embedded in an overarching world culture States modify their traditions in the direction of worldcultural forms/prescriptions/principles WPT is based on a totally different theory of action: it emphasises the influence of norms and culture not power
4. World culture theory A response to world polity theory Reflected in Roland Robertson, Arjun Appadurai, Ulf Hannerz World culture is new and important BUT it is not as homogeneous as WPT claims 4. World culture theory World society is a complex set of relations among many
different units in the global field People are becoming aware of the new global reality the problem of how to live together in one global system G compresses the world into a single entity; the emphasis is on cultural compression all cultures are becoming subcultures within a larger entity = global ecumene This does not mean homogenisation but organisation of diversity We will come back to creolisation, glocalisation...
Readings for Lecture 5: Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy Arjun Appadurai The Global Ecumene Ulf Hannerz If you want: Roland Robertson Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity in Global Modernities
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