Lesson 6.1 Momentum and Impulse - Miss Cochi's Mathematics
Lesson 6.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Essential Question: How do you calculate elastic and inelastic collisions? Before we start Collisions are sometimes described as elastic or
inelastic. To the right is a list of colliding objects. Rank them from most elastic to most inelastic. What factors did you consider when ranking these collisions?
A baseball and a bat A baseball and a glove Two football players Two billiard balls
Two balls of modeling clay Two hard rubber toy balls An automobile collision Collisions In some collisions, two objects collide and stick
together so that they travel together after the impact. -Football players during a tackle In other collisions, two objects collide and bounce so that they move away with two different
velocities. -A tennis racquet and a tennis ball What is a perfectly inelastic collision? A collision in which two objects stick together after colliding - two football players
- meteorite striking the earth Momentum is conserved. Masses combine. The total momentum of the two cars before the collision (a) is the same as
the total momentum of the two cars after the inelastic collision (b). How do you calculate a perfectly inelastic collision? It is important to pay attention to signs that
indicate direction when using this equation. A 1850 kg luxury sedan stopped at a traffic light is struck from the rear by a compact car with a mass of 975 kg. The two cars become entangled as a result of the collision. If the compact car was moving at a velocity of 22.0 m/s to the north before the collision, what is the velocity of the entangled mass after the collision?
An kg train car moving east at 21 m/s collides with a kg fully-loaded train car initially at rest. The two cars stick together. Find the velocity of the two cars after the collision. A 1500 kg car traveling at 15.0 m/s to the south collides with a 4500 kg truck that is initially at rest at a
stoplight. The car and truck stick together and move together after the collision. What is the final velocity of the two-vehicle mass? A grocery shopper tosses a 9.0 kg bag of rice into a stationary 18.0 kg grocery cart. The bag hits the cart with the horizontal speed of 5.5 m/s toward the front of the cart. What is the final speed of the cart and bag?
A dry cleaner throws a 22 kg bag of laundry onto a stationary 9.0 kg cart. The cart and laundry bag begin moving at 3.0 m/s to the right. Find the velocity of the laundry bag before the collision. A 47.4 kg student runs down the sidewalk and jumps with a horizontal speed of 4.20 m/s onto a stationary skateboard. The student and skateboard move down the sidewalk with a speed of 3.95 m/s. Find the following:
a. The mass of the skateboard b. How fast the student would have to jump to have a final speed of 5.00 m/s What happens to kinetic energy in these collisions? Kinetic energy is less after the collision. It is converted into other forms of energy. Internal energy - the temperature is increased.
Sound energy - the air is forced to vibrate. Some kinetic energy may remain after the collision, or it may all be lost. Two clay balls collide head-on in a perfectly inelastic collision. The first ball has a mass of 0.500 kg and an initial velocity of 4.00 m/s to the right. The second ball has a mass of 0.250 kg and an initial velocity of 3.00 m/
s to the left. What is the decrease in kinetic energy during the collision? A clay ball with a mass of 0.35 kg hits another 0.35 kg ball at rest, and the two stick together. The first ball has an initial speed of 4.2 m/s. a. What is the final speed of the balls? b. Calculate the decrease in kinetic energy that occurs during the collision.
c. What percentage of the initial kinetic energy is converted to other forms of energy? A 0.25 kg arrow with a velocity of 12 m/s to the west strikes and pierces the center of 6.8 kg target. a. What is the final velocity of the combined masses? b. What is the decrease in kinetic energy during the collision?
A 56 kg ice skater traveling at 4.0 m/s to the north meets and joins hands with a 65 kg skater traveling at 12.0 m/s in the opposite direction. Without rotating, the two skaters continue skating together with joined hands. a. What is the final velocity of the two skaters? b. What is the decrease in kinetic energy during the collision? What is an elastic collision?
A collision in which the total momentum and the total kinetic energy are conserved - Two billiard balls collide and then move separately after the collision
Objects collide and return to their original shape. Kinetic energy remains the same after the collision How do you calculate an elastic collision?
Momentum and kinetic energy are conserved in an elastic collision. A 0.015 kg marble moving to the right at 0.225 m/s makes an elastic head-on collision with a 0.030 kg shooter marble moving to the left at 0.180 m/s. After the collision, the smaller marble moves to the left at 0.315 m/s. Assume that neither marble rotates before or after
the collision and that both marbles are moving on a frictionless surface. What is the velocity of the 0.030 kg marble after the collision? Two shuffleboard disks of equal mass, one of which is orange and one of which is yellow, are involved in an elastic collision. The yellow disk is initially at rest and is struck by the orange disk, which is moving initially to the right at 5.00 m/s. After the collision, the orange disk
is at rest. What is the velocity of the yellow disk after the collision? Two billiard balls, each with a mass of 0.35 kg, strike each other head-on. One ball is initially moving left at 4.1 m/s and ends up moving right at 3.5 m/s. The second ball is initially moving to the right at 3.5 m/s. Assume that neither ball rotates before or after the collision and that both balls are moving on a frictionless
surface. What is the final velocity of the second ball? A 16.0 kg canoe moving to the left at 12.5 m/s makes an elastic head-on collision with a 14.0 kg raft moving to the right at 16.0 m/s. After the collision, the raft moves to the left at 14.4 m/s. Disregard any effects of the water. a. Find the velocity of the canoe after the collision. b. Verify your answer by calculating the total kinetic
energy before and after the collision. A 4.0 kg bowling ball sliding to the right at 8.0 m/s has an elastic head-on collision with another 4.0 kg bowling ball initially at rest. The first ball stops after the collision. a. Find the velocity of the second ball after the collision. b. Verify your answer by calculating the total kinetic
energy before and after the collision. How do you calculate elastic and inelastic collisions?
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