Lightweight Transradial Prosthetic Able to Withstand ...

Lightweight Transradial Prosthetic Able to Withstand ...

LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSRADIAL PROSTHETIC ABLE TO WITHSTAND MECHANICAL FORCES DURING A HUMAN FALL SARAH MCBRYAN TYPES OF TRANSRADIAL PROSTHESIS Body-powered Uses cables and body movement to simulate movement in the prosthesis Limited, but reliable movement Externally/battery powered Uses lithium gel batteries to power motors

or other such actuators to simulate movement Movement dependent on bio signals DOF 2 http://www.upperlimbprosthetics.info/index.php?p=1_9_Body-Powered http://www.upperlimbprosthetics.info/index.php?p=1_10_Externally-Powe NEW ADVANCEMENTS http://www.oandp.com/articles/images/2011-12_02/12-02_02.jpg

ttp://www.synergypo.com/?page_id=255 ttps://img.youtube.com/vi/Lm9d-M6TERQ/0.jpg 3 NEW ADVANCEMENTS ttp://www.synergypo.com/?page_id=255 ttps://img.youtube.com/vi/Lm9d-M6TERQ/0.jpg 4 NEW ADVANCEMENTS ttps://img.youtube.com/vi/Lm9d-M6TERQ/0.jpg

5 NEW ADVANCEMENTS 6 PROJECT FISHBONE We propose a lightweight transradial prosthetic shaft, created with advance manufacturing and press-fit techniques, to meet end-market and customer needs for patients with below the elbow amputations or congenital anomalies. 41,000 patients with upper-limb deficiencies [1] Current market product failures [3-9] Weight Balance

Durability Provides protective shielding to internal components 7 PRESS-FIT APPLICATION Press-fit A design that uses interlocking pieces that are held together by friction as opposed to any other form of adhesive No glue, no composites Cubic designs Simplified force diagrams Easy to build Easy to test

2, 3, and 5 fin models A) Physical prototypes for cubic designs. B) Exploded view of half the 3 fin cube. The fins are highlighted in teal and span horizontally across the design. Design was built by Coleen Fox and Hayden McIver in SolidWorks. C) Depiction of an applied compressive force being distributed in six different ways through current design mechanisms. 8 CUBIC

Peak strength between designs was approximately 2.8 kN or 620 lbf 5 fin design Too strong? Device should fail further patient injury Error bars are standard deviations between trials at max load No significance was found between designs 9 CYLINDRICAL DESIGNS

Designs had to be altered to closer fit final design concept Simple radial structure Effect on compressive strength Different height to base ratio Shearing Torsional strength 4, 8, and 12 fin cylindrical models were modeled and laser cut, these are shown as A, B, and C respectively Initial cylindrical designs. The fins are highlighted in red. The circle bases are gray.

10 RESULTS Peak strength was approximately 1.3kN or 300lbf 12 fin model Mechanical strength requirements during a human fall is 500lbf [13] Material considerations It can be hypothesized that an increase in material density will significantly increase overall device

strength Error bars are standard deviations between trials at max load 11 TORSIONAL SUPPORT An adaptation of the 4 fin design was created to include support beams in order to increase resistance to torsional forces. 4 additional fins 45 angle 4T Comparable to the 12fin model in

compressive strength Side-by-side comparison between the 4 fin and 4T design. 12 TORSIONAL TEST Vertical torque sensor was used to find peak values (Nm) for each design Endcaps were created for each design Apply torque to 95% of fin area Fix, or rigid bottom Torsional strengths met initial

specifications for that of a human arm without injury to patient Approximately 16Nm 13 3-POINT BENDING TEST Center compression apparatus Distribute force to two center fins Endcaps Not rigidly held Instron applied force at a constant

20mm/min 14 3-POINT BENDING TEST: RESULTS Using load and displacement, equations 1 and 2 were used to calculate stress and strain moduli respectively (1) (2) No statistical significance (p<<0.05) Youngs moduli Flexural yield strengths

Maximum displacement 15 INTERSTITIAL FREE SPACE VOLUME Sample % Free space 4 Fin Circle 90% 8 Fin Circle 88% 12 Fin Circle 85% 4T Circle 86%

Weight Distribution of internal components Tailor-made to patient point of care Safely store and protect internal components 16 FISHBONE Offers new mechanical frame High compressive strengths Comparable torsional strengths High interstitial free space volume

Easily scaled or tailored to patient Balance 17 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thank you to Dr. LaBelle and Dr. Kingsbury for their mentorship, advice, and laboratory equipment. Special thanks to Hayden McIver and the Fishbone prosthesis laboratory group for inputs and help throughout the year. 18 REFERENCES [1] K. Ziegler-Graham, E.J. MacKenzie, P.L. Ephraim, T.G. Travison, R. Brookmeyer Estimating the prevalence of limb loss

in the United States: 2005 to 2050 Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 89 (3) (2008), pp. 422429 [2] Biddiss, Elaine A., and Tom T. Chau. "Upper Limb Prosthesis use and Abandonment: A Survey of the Last 25 Years." Prosthetics and Orthotics International 31.3 (2007): 236-57. Web. [3] Schultz, Aimee E., Susan P. Baade, and Todd A. Kuiken. "Expert Opinions on Success Factors for Upper-Limb Prostheses." Journal of rehabilitation research and development 44.4 (2007): 483. Web. [4] Davidson, Judith. "A Survey of the Satisfaction of Upper Limb Amputees with their Prostheses, their Lifestyles, and their Abilities." Journal of hand therapy: official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists 15.1 (2002): 62-70. Web. [5] OConnell, Colleen. Upper Limb Prosthetic Services Post Haiti Earthquake: Experiences and Recommendations of Haiti-Based Rehabilitation Program. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics 2012 Vol. 24, Num. 2. pp. 77-79. Web.

[6] Wijk, Ulrika, et al. "Forearm Amputees' Views of Prosthesis use and Sensory Feedback." Journal of hand therapy: official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists 28.3 (2015): 269-78. Web. [7] O'Neill, Ciaran. "An Advanced, Low Cost Prosthetic Arm. Web. 19 REFERENCES [8] Herbert, Nicholas, et al. "A Preliminary Investigation into the Development of 3-D Printing of Prosthetic Sockets." Journal of rehabilitation research and development 42.2 (2005): 141. Web. [9] Gretsch, K. F., et al. "Development of Novel 3D-Printed Robotic Prosthetic for Transradial Amputees." Prosthetics and Orthotics International (2015) Web. [10] O'Keeffe, Bernard. "Prosthetic Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb Amputee." Indian journal of plastic surgery: official publication

of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India 44.2 (2011): 246-52. Web. [11] Chapter 4 Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials". Biomaterials - The intersection of Biology and Material Science. New Jersey, United States: Pearson Prentice Hall Bioengineering. 2008. p. 152. [12] Carey, Stephanie L., et al. "Golf Hand Prosthesis Performance of Transradial Amputees." Prosthetics and orthotics international 39.3 (2015): 244. Web. [13] Chiu, James, and Stephen N. Robinovitch. "Prediction of Upper Extremity Impact Forces during Falls on the Outstretched Hand." Journal of Biomechanics 31.12 (1998): 1169-76. Web. [14] O'Sullivan, LW, and TJ Gallwey. "Forearm Torque Strengths and Discomfort Profiles in Pronation and Supination." Ergonomics 48.6 (2005): 703-21. Web. [15] "Flexure Test." Instron. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2016. 20

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