Limits of a Superpower United States Policy, Economy, and Culture during the 1970s Essential Questions Analyze the continuities and changes that occurred in U.S foreign policy during the the 1970s. To what extent did policy change, to what extent did it stay the same? Analyze the effectiveness of social movements in addressing major problems and inequalities, and assess the ability of these movements to affect political change during the 1970s.
Richard M. Nixon Background: Yorba Linda, CA Quaker Navy, World War II Congressman & Senator Vice President The Imperial Presidency International relations > domestic policy
Foreign policy reduces CW tensions Foreign Policy Vietnamization and Dtente Vietnam Peace with Honor Reduce involvement without defeat Vietnamization Withdrawal: 540,000 (1969) 30,000 (1972)
Nixon Doctrine Support in Asia, without troops Money, weapons, training Opposition to Nixons War Policies Laotian and Cambodian Campaigns US forces invade Cambodia to destroy Vietnamese Communist bases Protest on college campuses Kent State Massacre (1970) Jackson State
US Senate voted to repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution House did not vote. Public Revelations: My Lai Massacre (1968) women & children Pentagon Papers (Daniel Ellsberg, 1971, DofD analyst) NY Times v. United States Ending the Conflict Kissinger: Peace is at hand - premature No deal met Bombing of North Vietnam (1972)
Force an agreement Paris Accords (1973) Armistice Withdrawal the last of its troops Return of POWs 500 Not the real end fighting continued between North & South; thousands of enemy troops left in the South Over a million died likely Results: 58,000 deaths $118 Billion Inflation
Dtente with China and the Soviet Union Visit to China Travel ban lifted Ping-pong diplomacy Nixon meets w/Zhou Enlai & Mao Zedong (1972) Arms Control with the Soviet Union SALT I (1969-1972) freeze on ballistic missiles carrying nuclear warheads Visits U.S.S.R. (1972) Anti-Ballistic Missiles Treaty
Arms limitations brought about dtente reduction of Cold War tensions Domestic Policy Nixon and the Rise of Conservatism The New Federalism revenue sharing Democrats hold majority in both houses Nixon laid the foundation for a shift in public opinion toward conservatism Goal: shift responsibility of welfare back to the states
Manifestations: Family Assistance Plan Reduce welfare defeated by Congress Revenue sharing & Block grants $30 billion to states Impoundment of Funds Congress said presidents duty to carry out the laws of Congress Nixons Economic Policies Stagflation Stagnation + inflation
Attempts to cut spending unsuccessful Deficit spending 90 day wage and price freeze (1971) 10% surtax on imported goods Removed gold standard Improved balance of trade Recession Ends (1972) Increases Social Security w/COLA Congress adds Title IX(CRA-64) Includes sex discrimination (schools) Sports programs equal for girls
Conservatism A New Coalition The Silent Majority Appeal to disaffected, conservative democrats antiwar protestors, black militants, busing, youth counterculture excesses Disagreed with the liberal approach of their party The Southern Strategy Slow down desegregation Appeal to Southern Democrats Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971) busing upheld
The Burger Court more conservative but decisions angered the most conservative Roe v. Wade (1973) abortion legal U.S. v. Nixon (1974) ordered the turning over of Watergate tapes The Election of 1972 Republican Advantages Foreign policy success in China & USSR Removal of George Wallace Democratic nominee from ND
Democrats Indecision, mismanagement McGovern = very liberal, antiwar, antiestablishment Results: Nixon Landslide: 61% popular = carried every state except MA Political realignment: Sunbelt and suburbs
Watergate The Scandal that Changed the Presidency and the Role of Media White House Abuses The Break-in (June, 1972) CREEP Committee to RE-elect the President Nixons Dirty Tricks Wiretaps to stop leaks Plumbers discredit opponents and stop leaks Enemies List enemies of Nixon and/or the Vietnam War All the Presidents Men
Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Dean Washington Post Woodward & Bernstein Other Scandals ITT Case V.P. Agnews Resignation due to bribes taken when governor of Maryland Replaced by Gerald Ford Saturday Night Massacre (Oct. 1973) Two AGs resign, Solicitor General (Bork) fires Cox
Other Developments - 1973 War Powers Act Retaliation for Cambodian bombing 3500 secret bombing raids Limit the power of the president over the military - President must report to Congress any troop commitments within 48 hours 60 day limit to commitment w/out Congressional consent Has largely been ignored by every subsequent president October War and Oil Embargo Yom Kippur War Syrians and Egyptians launched attack on Israel in an attempt to recover lands lost in 6-day war of 1967 U.S. sends $2 billion in arms to Israel
OPEC retaliates embargo to Israels supporters Results: Oil shortage, inflation, introduction of Japanese cars, collapse of auto industry, national speed limit (55 mph), long lines at gas stations Resignation of the President Impeachment Proceedings (1974) The Tapes: Transcripts (redacted) released U.S. v. Nixon (July) The smoking gun 18 mins erased
Articles of Impeachment: Obstruction of justice Abuse of power Contempt of Congress Nixon Resigns (August 9, 1974) Pardoned by Ford The Ford Interlude The Administration of the First Non-elected President (1974-1977) The Ford Administration 1974 - 1977
Investigating the CIA Attempting to expose assassination plots Salvador Allende (Chile) Marxist President Ford appoints George H.W. Bush to head CIA Ford unable to get additional funds for South Vietnamese Southeast Asia Policy Fall of Saigon (April, 1975) evacuated 150,000 Vietnamese Genocide in Cambodia 1 million 10 million refugees to America Economic growth of the rest of SE Asia Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia did not fall to communism Some argue that our support of South Vietnam was not a waster
because it bought time for other nations of Asia. Ford Administration (con.) Domestic & Economic Policy The WIN Campaign Whip inflation now The Veto (39) The Bicentennial (1976) The Election of 1976
Ford vs. Carter Low Turnout (53%) Desire to move away from politics as usual. Electoral: 240 to 297 The Carter Administration America at the End of the 1970s Foreign Policy & Human Rights Human Rights Guided policies w/South Africa and Latin
America Cut off US aid to Argentina and Chile because of human rights violations Panama Canal Nationalization by 2000 Americans saw this as a giveaway Camp David Accords (1978) Peace settlement between Egypt & Israel Egypt first Arab nation to recognize Israel
Foreign Policy Limitations Iran Hostage Crisis (1979) Rise of the Ayatollah Khomeini 2nd Oil Shortage Seizure of Embassy in Teheran (Nov. 4, 1979) Operation Eagle Claw (April, 1980) helicopters broke down Hostages not freed until January 20, 1981 Cold War Continuance of Dtente Recognizes PRC (1979)
SALT II (1979)- limiting the size of nuclear delivery system Soviet-Afghan War (December, 1979) US embargo on exports to USSR Boycott 1980 Olympic games Move to an arms buildup Domestic Policy Dealing with Inflation 13% Volcker (Fed) pushed interest rates to 20%
Impact on the auto industry laid off tens of thousands of workers Federal deficit to $60 billion (1980) Loss of Popularity Malaise Speech moral & spiritual crisis of the American People Approval: 23% American Society in Transition Rise of the Sunbelt & Senior Citizens
Changing Demographics Increase in minorities and cultural pluralism Growth of Immigration Largest segments: Latin America & Asia Undocumented Immigrants Est. 12 million by mid-70s Demands for Minority Rights: Latinos
Hispanic Americans Cesar Chavez, the UFW, and the Delano Boycott & March (1966) Collective bargaining for farm workers (1975) Educational Reforms Bilingual schools Demands for Minority Rights: Native Americans American Indian Movement (AIM-1968)
Occupation Movement Wounded Knee & Alcatraz Indian Self-Determination Act of 1975 Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978 Demands for Minority Rights (con.) Asian Americans Fastest growing ethnic minority Emphasis on education
Discrimination Gay Liberation Movement Stonewall Riot (1969) 1970s no longer a mental illness dropped the ban on hiring Dont Ask, Dont Tell (1993) Movement for LGBT Rights The Environmental Movement Increased Awareness Rachel Carsons Silent Spring (1962)
Earth Day (1970) Major Oil Spills Santa Barbara (1969) Exxon Valdez (1989) Nuclear Disasters Three Mile Island (1979) Chernobyl (1986) Pollution and Dumping Love Canal (NY) Protective Legislation Environment:
Clean Air Act & the EPA (1970) Clean Water Act (1972) Endangered Species Act (1973) Consumer Protection Ralph Naders Unsafe at Any Speed (1965) Automobile regulations: seat belts, weight distribution, and design Freedom of Information Act (1967) OSHA (1971) Consumer Products Safety Act (1972)
Conservative Backlash Conservative Reaction to liberal policies Causes: Rise of Religious Right Response to SCOTUS decisions Reaction to New Deal and Great Society Programs
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