LIPIDS - Seneca Valley School District

LIPIDS - Seneca Valley School District

S D I P LI ER C N A H N E R O V

A L F NATURES LIPIDS VS CARBOHYDRATES - CONTAIN CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND OXYGEN LIPIDS: DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER DO NOT PROVIDE STRUCTURE TO FOOD PRODUCTS FATS, OILS, SHORTENING, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, STEROLS,

AND CHOLESTEROL STRUCTURE OF LIPIDS 2 BASIC PARTS: 1. GLYCERIDE: MOLECULES THAT HAVE A GLYCEROL BASE CONTAIN 3 HYDROXYL GROUPS MONOGLYCERIDE: ONE FATTY ACID ATTACHED AT THE SIDE OF THE HYDROXYL GROUP DIGLYCERIDE: TWO FATTY ACIDS ATTACHED TRIGLYCERIDE: FATTY ACID JOINED AT EACH OF THE THREE HYDROXYL SITES 2. FATTY ACID: ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT CONSIST OF A CARBON CHAIN WITH A CARBOXYL GROUP

CARBOXYL GROUP: 1 CARBON ATOM + 2 OXYGEN ATOMS + 1 HYDROGEN ATOM 20 FATTY ACIDS = MANY COMBINATIONS OF TRIGLYCERIDES 2. 3 GENERAL TYPES OF LIPIDS 1.TRIGLYCERI DES MAJOR TYPE OF FAT FOUND IN FOOD AND IN BODIES

PHOSPHOLIP IDS 2 FATTY ACIDS AND PHOSPHORUS CONTAINING ACID ATTACHED SOLUBLE IN WATER IN BODY: CARRIES

FOOD BACK AND FORTH ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES IN FOOD: HELPS FATS STAY IN WATERBASED SOLUTIONS 3. STEROLS MOLECULES DERIVED OR MADE FROM LIPIDS

CHOLESTEROL FOUND IN EVERY CELL IN THE BODY VIT D AND STEROID HORMONES CATEGORIES OF LIPIDS 1.MOLECULAR STRUCTURE 2.PHYSICAL STATE

1. MOLECULAR STRUCTURE CARBON IS CAPABLE OF FORMING 4 BONDS SATURATED FATTY ACIDS MAX NUMBER OF HYDROGEN ATOMS DO NOT CONTAIN DOUBLE BONDS EX: BUTTER & COCONUT OIL 1. MOLECULAR STRUCTURE UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS SOME DOUBLE BONDS BETWEEN CARBON ATOMS IN THIS MOLECULE MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS ONLY 1 DOUBLE BOND IN THIS MOLECULE BETWEEN 2 CARBON ATOMS EX: OLIVE OIL, ALMONDS, WALNUTS, AND CANOLA OIL

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 2 OR MORE DOUBLE BONDS THE CARBON CHAIN EX: SAFFLOWER, SUNFLOWER, AND CORN OILS IN 2. PHYSICAL STATES OF LIPIDS HYDROGENATE FAT OIL

D PRODUCTS SOLID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE ADDING HYDROGEN ATOMS GENERALLY SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE GENERALLY MONO OR POLYUNSATURATE D MAKES LIQUID OIL SOLID HIGHER MELTING POINTS

MORE HYDROGEN ATOMS TO AN UNSATURATED LIPID TO INCREASE SATURATION THAN OIL EX: VEGETABLE SHORTENING FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS 1.MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION POINTS 2.NONPOLAR NATURE OF LIPIDS 3.TENDENCY TO REACT WITH OXYGEN

1. MELTING VS SOLIDIFICATION POINTS MELTING POINT SOLIDIFICATION POINT TEMPERATURE WHICH CHANGES TEMPERATURE WHICH ALL A SOLID TO A LIQUID DOUBLE BONDS = LOWER THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH A LIPID WILL LIQUEFY

FAT > OIL LIPIDS IN A MIXTURE ARE IN A SOLID STATE CAUSES CLOUDINESS IN REFRIGERATED HOMEMADE DRESSINGS 2. NON-POLAR MOLECULES NON-POLAR: EQUAL SHARING OF ELECTRONS READILY MIX WITH SUBSTANCES THAT ARE NON-POLAR REMEMBER WATER IS POLAR, WHICH IS WHY OIL AND WATER DONT MIX LIPIDS ARE LESS DENSE THAN WATER

3. TENDENCY TO DETERIORATE AUTO-OXIDATION: COMPLEX CHAIN REACTION WHEN LIPIDS ARE EXPOSED TO OXYGEN; CAUSES LIPIDS TO DETERIORATE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN UNSATURATED OILS (DOUBLE BONDS READILY BIND WITH OXYGEN) RANCIDITY: FORM OF FOOD SPOILAGE; NOT NECESSARILY HARMFUL TO HEALTH, BUT CAN BE

UNAPPETIZING COLOR AND FLAVOR CHANGES PREVENTION: REDUCE OXYGEN EXPOSURE ADDING ANTIOXIDANTS (EX: VITAMINS A, C, AND E) ROLE OF LIPIDS IN COOKING 1.FATS SERVE AS A MEDIUM FOR HEAT TRANSFER TEMPERATURE CONTINUES TO INCREASE AS HEAT IS ADDED, UNTIL IT REACHES THE SMOKE POINT SMOKE POINT: THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH FATTY ACIDS BREAK APART AND PRODUCE SMOKE

FLASH POINT: TEMPERATURE AT WHICH LIPIDS WILL FLAME EXAMPLE: DEEP FRYING FRENCH FRIES EXPERIMENT! ROLE OF FATS IN COOKING 2.TENDERIZE FAT SHORTENS THE MOLECULE STRANDS CAUSED BY FLOUR RESULTS IN A MORE TENDER PRODUCT REASON BEHIND SHORTENING NAME EXAMPLE: PIE CRUSTS & BISCUITS ROLE OF FATS IN COOKING 3.AERATE FAT ALLOWS TINY BUBBLES TO FORM WHEN BATTERS ARE BEATEN (CREAM FAT AND SUGAR)

EXAMPLE: COOKIES 4.ENHANCE FLAVOR FAT DISSOLVES AND DISPERSES FLAVOR COMPOUNDS FROM OTHER INGREDIENTS, SUCH AS VEGETABLES ROLE OF FATS IN COOKING 5.LUBRICATE FOOD COMPONENTS MAKES MEAT EASIER TO CHEW MARBLING: SPECKS OR STREAKS OF FAT IN MUSCLE TISSUE MORE MARBLING = MORE TENDER MAKES OTHER FOODS SEEM TO HAVE MORE MOISTURE EX: MAYO OR BUTTER ON SANDWICHES

ROLE OF FATS IN COOKING 6.SERVES AS LIQUIDS IN EMULSIONS MIXTURE THAT CONTAINS A NON-POLAR LIPID AND A WATERBASED LIQUID WATER: POLAR (UNEQUAL SHARING OF ELECTRONS) POLAR COMPOUNDS WILL COMBINE EASILY WITH EACH OTHER LIPIDS: NON-POLAR (EQUAL OR BALANCED SHARING OF ELECTRONS) EXAMPLE OF NON-EMULSION: OIL AND VINEGAR R U O

Y & LIPIDS BODY FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS IN THE BODY 1.HELP SUPPLY ENERGY BETWEEN MEALS TAKES LONGER TO DIGEST THAN CARBOHYDRATES AND GIVES A LONGER FEELING OF FULLNESS 9 CALORIES PER GRAM TWICE THE ENERGY PROVIDED BY A GRAM OF STARCH OR SUGAR FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS IN THE

BODY 2.MAINTAINS BODY TEMPERATURE ADIPOSE TISSUE: TISSUE THE BODY STORES LIPIDS FOR FUTURE NEEDS UNDER SKIN & ACTS AS AN INSULATOR HOLDING IN BODY WARMTH FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS IN THE BODY 3.CUSHION FOR VITAL ORGANS 4.CELL WALL PRODUCTION

ALL CELL WALLS MADE OF LIPIDS AND PROTEIN DIETS 100% FAT FREE FOR EXTENDED PERIODS ARE DANGEROUS AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS IN THE BODY 5.VITAMIN TRANSPORTATION VITAMINS A, D, E, & K ARE FAT SOLUBLE, SO THEY MUST COMBINE WITH FAT TO BE TRANSPORTED THROUGH THE BODY 6.PRODUCTION OF HORMONES & VITAMINS FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS IN THE

BODY 7.PROVIDE THE BODY WITH ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS CANNOT BE PRODUCED BY THE BODY AND MUST COME FROM FOOD LINOLEIC ACID (AN OMEGA-6 FATTY ACID): CORN, COTTONSEED, AND SOYBEAN OILS; CHICKEN LINOLENIC ACID (AN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID): CANOLA OIL, SOYBEAN OIL, WALNUTS, FISH OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS

STUDIES SHOW POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO REDUCTION OF HEART DISEASE RESEARCH INDICATES THESE FATTY ACIDS HELP LOWER TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD SLOW GROWTH OF PLAQUE IN THE ARTERIES FISH THAT HAVE PINK OR RED FLESH ARE HIGHER IN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS

ALBACORE TUNA, SALMON, LAKE TROUT, & SARDINES CANOLA OIL, FLAXSEED, & WALNUTS BECOME OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID IN THE BODY CHOLESTEROL RIGID MOLECULE THAT HELPS SOLIDIFY CELL WALLS 25% OF ALL CELL WALLS INSOLUBLE IN WATER TRANSPORTED THROUGHOUT BODY BY LIPOPROTEINS: CLUSTERS OF LIPID AND PROTEIN MOLECULES HDL CARRIES CHOLESTEROL FROM BLOOD BACK TO LIVER, WHICH PROCESSES THE CHOLESTEROL FOR ELIMINATION FROM THE BODY

GOOD (UNSATURATED) OLIVE OIL, CORN OIL, SOYBEAN OIL LDL CARRIES CHOLESTEROL FROM LIVER TO REST OF BODY BAD (SATURATED) COCONUT & PALM OIL, BUTTER, BACON, EGGS, SOUR CREAM, AGED CHEESES, WHOLE MILK CAUSES PLAQUE DEPOSITS INSIDE ARTERIES DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS 20-35% OF CALORIES SHOULD COME FROM FAT 8OZ OR MORE PER WEEK OF VARIOUS FISH AND SEAFOOD FAT-FREE DIET DOES NOT PROVIDE ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS TRANSPORT FAT-SOLUBLE NUTRIENTS

PROTECT VITAL ORGANS PRODUCE HORMONES & VITAMINS CONSCIOUS ABOUT CHOLESTEROL USE THE IPADS OR BYOT, TO READ THROUGH THE FOLLOWING WEBSITES TO HELP YOU COMPLETE THE ACCOMPANYING WORKSHEET PART 1: HTTP://WWW.MEDICINET.COM/CHOLESTEROL_LEVELS_PICTURES_SLIDESHOW/ARTICLE.H TM PART 2: HTTP:// WWW.MAYOCLINIC.ORG/DISEASES-CONDITIONS/HIGH-BLOOD-CHOLESTEROL/IN-DEPTH/C HOLESTEROL/ART-20045192 PART 3: HTTP://WWW.MEDICINENET.COM/HIGH_CHOLESTEROL_HYPERLIPIDEMIA_QUIZ.HTM PART 4: HTTP://WWW.MEDICINENET.COM/FAT_AND_FATS_QUIZ/QUIZ.HTM **ALL LINKS ARE ON MY WEBSITE

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