Lunar Exploration with Penetrometers

Penetrators for Europa Rob Gowen on behalf of UK Penetrator Consortium Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Europa Penetrators Detachable Propulsion Stage Low mass projectiles ~4Kg+PDS High impact speed ~ 200-500 m/s Point of Separation

Payload Instruments Very tough ~10-50kgee Penetrate surface ~0.5-few metres Penetrator PDS (Penetrator Delivery System) Perform science from below surface Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK

Penetrator Payload/Science A nominal 2kg payload Seismometers - interior structure (existence/size of subterrannean ocean) and seismic activity Micro-seismometer Imperial College Chemical sensors subsurface refactory/volatile (organic/ astrobiologic (e.g. sulphur mass spec) material arising from interior Mineralogy/astrobiology camera subsurface mineralogy and possible astrobiological material

Accelerometers hardness/layering/ composition of subsurface material. (future landing site assessment) Thermal sensors - subsurface temperatures + other instruments beeping transmitter, magnetometer, Ion trap spectrometer Open University radiation sensors, etc descent camera (surface morphology, Laplace Meeting landing-site

Monrovia, location) May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Science/Technology Requirements Target Region of upwelled interior material (e.g. sulphur). 2 penetrators would allow improved seismic results and natural redundancy. Lifetime Only minutes/hours required for camera, accelerometer, chemistry, thermal & mineralogy/astrobiologic measurements. An orbital period (~few days) for seismic measurements. (requires RHU)

Spacecraft support ~7-9 years cruise phase, health reporting Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Preliminary Estimated Mass Item Estimated Mass (kg) Penetrator (inc. 1.7 kg payload) ~3.7Kg Delivery system (AOCS) ~8.1Kg Spacecraft support

~1.5kg Total mass Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 ~13Kg/probe MSSL/UCL UK Heritage Lunar-A and DS2 space qualified. Military have been successfully firing instrumented projectiles for many years to comparable levels of gee forces into concrete and steel. 40,000gee qualified electronics exist (and re-used). Currently developing similar penetrators for MoonLITE.

Payload heritage: Accelerometers, thermometers, sample drill, geophone fully space qualified. Seismometers (ExoMars) & chemical sensors (Rosetta) heritage but require impact ruggedizing. Mineralogy camera new but simple. Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 When asked to describe the condition of a probe that had impacted 2m of concrete at 300 m/s a UK expert described the device as a bit scratched! MSSL/UCL UK Impact Trial 19-21 May 2008

Full-scale trial 3 Penetrators, ~0.6m long, ~13kg, Aluminum 300m/s impact velocity Normal Incidence Dry sand target 0.56m Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Impact trial - Contributors Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Impact trial Payload Radiation sensor

Batteries Magnetometers Mass spectrometer Acceleromete Power Interconnectio Processing Micro-seismometers Accelerometers, Thermometer Batteries,Data logger Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 Drill assembly MSSL/UCL UK Impact Trial Objectives Demonstrate survivability of penetrator shell,

accelerometers and power system. Determine internal acceleration environment at different positions within penetrator. Extend predictive modelling to new impact and penetrator materials. Assess impact on penetrator subsystems and instruments. Assess alternative packing methods. Assess interconnect philosophy. Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Trial Hardware - Status Inners Stack Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK

Impact Trial - Configuration Rocket sled Penetrator Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Target Dry sand 2m x2m x6m Small front entrance aperture (polythene) Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008

MSSL/UCL UK Firing Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK 1st Firing - Results Firing parameters: Impact velocity: 310 m/s (c.f. 300m/s nominal) Nose-up ~10degs (c.f. 0 degs nominal) => worst case Penetrator found in top of target in one piece Glanced off steel girder which

radically changed its orientation Much ablation to nose and belly Rear flare quite distorted. Penetration: ~3.9m Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK First Firing Opening up s Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK 1st Firing internal Results Micro seismometer bay Connecting to MSSL accelerometer

and data processing bay Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK 1srt Firing QinetiQ accelerometer data Initial impact hi-res: Tail slap peak Overview: 5 kgee smoothed, ~16 kgee peak high frequency components ~5khz Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK 1st Firing MSSL accelerometer data Firing Along axis

Vertica l Horizo ntal 1st 10 kgee 15kgee 4kgee 3rd 11kgee 17kgee

7kgee Along axis: Main: 10kgee Cutter: 3kgee Girder: 1kgee Along axis Vertical axis Horizontal axis Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Hi-res MSSL accelerometer data Lots of high frequency structure

Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK 2nd & 3rd Firings All 3 firings remarkably consistent ~308-310m/s velocity, and ~8-10 degs nose up. 2/nd firing penetrator hit steel beam square on. Penetrators survived all 3 firings. Payload still operational . Steel nose for 3rd firing Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Survival Table Triple worst case: exceed 300m/s, >8deg attack angle Item

Firing 1 Firing 2 Firing 3 Penetrator Q-accel sys

Rad sensor n/a n/a Batteries n/a n/a Drill assembly

n/a n/a Magnetometer Not yet analysed n/a n/a Micro seismometers n/a Mass spectrometer n/a MSSL accel sys

(protected) (protected) not yet analysed (some loose screws) not yet analysed No critical failures currently all minor to unprotected bays or preliminary mountings Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK

Impact Trial Objectives Demonstrate survivability of penetrator shell, accelerometers and power system. Determine internal acceleration environment at different positions within penetrator. Extend predictive modelling to new impact and penetrator materials. Assess impact on penetrator subsystems and instruments. Assess alternative packing methods. Assess interconnect philosophy. Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Next Steps

next trial aim for Jan09. impact into harder material (ice,icy sand,concrete) full up system (all operating) transmit from target imminent funding for analysis and further hardware development. Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK Penetrators Conclusions

Acheived major step in demonstrating confidence in technology No great history of failure - only 1 planetary delivery to date Significant TRL with previous space qualified technology A useful tool in the toolbox of planetary exploration Capable of addressing fundamental astrobiology signatures and habitability Provide ground truth & new information not possible from orbit Provide useful landing information for future missions. Penetrator website: http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/planetary/missions/Micro_Penetrators.php email: [email protected] Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008 MSSL/UCL UK - End - Laplace Meeting - Monrovia, May 30 2008

MSSL/UCL UK

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • I-CAN! Legal In Clinics Self-Represented Litigants Conference June

    I-CAN! Legal In Clinics Self-Represented Litigants Conference June

    Free, on-line application and website Fills out JC forms, local forms and pleadings Informs users how to properly file Instructs users on where to file Provides procedural instructions in the form of print and video Gives users access to helpful...
  • AKUNTANSI PENDAPATAN DARI KONTRAK PELANGGAN PSAK 72 Agenda

    AKUNTANSI PENDAPATAN DARI KONTRAK PELANGGAN PSAK 72 Agenda

    This method recognizes revenue only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. Only after all costs are incurred is gross profit recognized. LO 11 Apply the cost-recovery method for long-term contracts. Cost-Recovery (Zero-Profit) Method. APPENDIX...
  • Bridging the Gap:

    Bridging the Gap:

    Bridging the Gap:. Understanding Title IX as Academic . Advisors. Bob Alston, Assistant Dean of Students NKU. Marg . Z. Basehart, Academic Advisor . UTK. Merrill ...
  • UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF

    UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF

    Examples will be used to explain and elaborate each term. People : people involved in the communication process are called the communicator (message source) and the recipient (message receiver). Communication is a dynamic process people therefore interactively play both roles.
  • More BNF, functions - cs.brown.edu

    More BNF, functions - cs.brown.edu

    Warmup: a new kind of data. Boolean datatype. George Boole, " The Laws of Thought" Exactly two values. true. false. In Racket, these are written true, false
  • Lesson 1 the Bible: the Word of God

    Lesson 1 the Bible: the Word of God

    the self-righteousness of man (rom. 10:3) iii. the imputed righteousness of god (rom. 3:22) iii. the imputed righteousness of god iii. the imputed righteousness of god iii. the imputed righteousness of god iii. the imputed righteousness of god iii. the...
  • NMOCD PIT RULE - New Mexico

    NMOCD PIT RULE - New Mexico

    NMOCD Pit Rule. 19.15.17.12 Operational Requirements. General. Prevent contamination of fresh water and protect public health and the environment. Recycle, reuse, reclaim or dispose of all drilling fluids according to division rules. No hazardous waste in a pit, closed-loop system,...
  • Outline - Home | School of Electrical Engineering and ...

    Outline - Home | School of Electrical Engineering and ...

    Text book: T. Ozsu and P. Valduriez, Principles of Distributed Database Systems, 3rd edition, Springer 2011. Notes based on those by TO and PV. Ch.x/ Outline. Introduction. What is a distributed DBMS. ... Commit protocols. Data replication. Great for read-intensive...