What are the 5 main nutrients? Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals Explain what macro- nutrients are and identify them. Nutrients needed by the body in relatively large
amounts Protein, Carbohydrates and Fats Name the two main functions of protein. Growth and repair of body cells
Maintenance of body cells What is the secondary function of protein? To provide energy
What are proteins made up of? Amino Acids (some of these are essential) Proteins can be divided into two groups, what are they?
HBV and LBV proteins High biological value and low biological value What is the difference between HBV proteins and LBV proteins?
HBV contain all the essential amino acids LBV lack one or more essential amino acids Give examples of HBV proteins. Meat, fish, eggs milk, cheese, soy beans
Give examples of LBV proteins. Cereals (wheat rice oats), pulses (peas lentils) , nuts Also gelatine (animal sources)
What can happen if you do not eat enough protein? Growth in children slowed down Cuts and wounds take longer to heal
What can happen if you eat too much protein? Converted to fat and lead to obesity if it is not used up as a secondary source of energy
What are the two main functions of carbohydrates in the body? To provide energy To provide warmth and so help maintain normal body temperature
Carbohydrates can be divided into two groups what are they? Sugars and Starches(TCCs)
Give examples of starchy carbohydrates (TCCs) Bread, pasta, cereals, potatoes Give examples of Sugary carbohydrates.
Cakes, biscuits, sweets, chocolate, jams. Fizzy drinks Why is it recommended that we get most of our energy from the starchy group (TCCs)? Starches are a good source of other nutrients
They bulk out the diet, make you feeler for longer They do not encourage tooth decay Starches are also a good source of NSP. What is NSP? Non starch polysaccharide also known as fibre
What can happen if you eat too much carbohydrate? Can be converted to fat in the body and can lead to obesity Too much sugar can lead to diabetes or tooth decay
What can happen if you dont have enough carbohydrate? Lack of energy leading to tiredness Protein may be used as a source of energy instead of its main function for growth and repair
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sugars? Intrinsic are naturally occurring sugars in food e.g fruit Extrinsic are sugars added to food known as NMES (non-milk
extrinsic sugars) What are the 5 functions of fat? To provide warmth To provide energy
To provide essential fatty acids To provide fat-soluble vitamins ADEK To surround and protect the organs What are the two main types of fats?
Saturated and Unsaturated Give examples of saturated fats. Meat and meat products Fats e.g. butter
Milk and dairy products- cream, cheese Give examples of unsaturated fats. Olive Oil, rape seed oil, avocados, nuts and seeds, vegetable oil
What does LDL and HDL cholesterol stand for and which one is the good/bad cholesterol. Low density lipoprotein (Bad) High-density lipoprotein (Good)
What effect do saturated fats have on cholesterol? High level saturated fats raise blood cholesterol especially LDL. This sticks to arteries leading to blood clots and
blockages of artery What effect do unsaturated fats have on cholesterol? Help lower LDL cholesterol Slightly increase HDL cholesterol
This cholesterol helps ferry the cholesterol away from the arteries to the liver where is broken down into bile What are essential fatty acids? Necessary fats that humans cannot make. They must
be obtained through the diet What is the main essential fatty acid? Omega 3 fatty acids
What is omega 3 fatty acids needed for in children? For brain development in babies and young children's What does omega 3 fatty acids help reduce in adults? The risk of blood clots, heart attacks and rheumatoid
arthritis What happens if you have too much fat? Can lead to obesity Can lead to high blood pressure and CHD
What happens if you dont have enough fat? The intake of essential fatty acids such as omega 3 fatty acids may be reduced
Fat soluble vitamins may be reduced What are trans -fatty acids or hydrogenated fats? Polyunsaturated fats which have been artificially
hardened by adding extra hydrogen What can they increase the risk of? Heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis and some cancers
Where are they found? Hard margarine, biscuits, cakes, commercially fried foods
What are the effects of storage on fats? Exposure to air causes fats to deteriorate and become rancid Fats become rancid due to oxidation- oxygen is absorbed by the fat molecules and reacts to produce an unpleasant
flavour and colour Oxidation is accelerated by light and any impurities in fat What are the effects of preparation on fats? High concentration of fat is difficult to digest. Is easier to
digest when surface of food is broken down e.g. grated cheese Combine a starchy food with the fatty food will make it easier to digest e.g. macaroni cheese
What is the effect of cooking on protein? Protein COAGULATE or set when heated e.g. egg whites set protein in milk forms a skin Protein in meat shrinks Heating the protein in wheat(gluten) helps bread to hold its
structure What is the effect of cooking on fats? Solid fats melt to liquid If oil continues to be heated a blue haze will be given off and
the fat will ignite When fat reaches smoking point, it will go rancid and smell What is the effect of dry heat on starches?
Dextrin is formed. Known as dextrinisation. Gives baked items a brown colour. Overheating causes charring and burning. What is the effect of moist heat on starch?
Starch grains soften and swell. They then absorb the moisture which causes the grain to rupture. This releases starch
What is the effect of dry heat on sugar? Sugar melts the caramelises, going brown then burning The caramelisation of the sugar forms a golden crust on bakes items
What is the effect of moist heat on sugar? Sugar dissolves and becomes a syrup which caramelises then chars when the water has evaporated
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